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Colon Cancer 2017

Very important for patients with colon cancer 2017

colon cancer: A treatment that improves overall survival on
You will earn 60% of the patient's health


  What is the disease and how it cures

Correctly cancer is a type of cancer that affects the colon (colon). The colon is the last part of the large intestine, from the digestive system. Colon cancer (rectum - Rectum) is a cancer in the last 15 centimeters of the colon. These two types of cancer call, together, correctly cancer, or: "correctly cancer".

In most cases, colon cancer begins as a small mass of non-cancerous cells called "polyp" and "animator's polyp". After a period of time, the polyps that have formed into cancerous lumps in the colon become transformed.

These may be small and are accompanied by very few symptoms, if any. Regular screening tests can prevent the development and progression of colon cancer by early detection of the cancer before it becomes cancerous.
Si lo Que Patricia signor's De Los Santos deal caners De Colon, ques Eden incur:
Cam bio en la activated deal intestine nor male, sangria en La's hences, clamberers intestinal (Colic) Permanent, flatulence (honchos gas en El ad dome - flatulence) Dolores o abdominal.

Prent's y respects

Fatiga extrema después de los tratamientos de cáncer de Colon
En caso de un cambio de dieta regolare para evitar el cáncer de colon?
Fueron sometidos un Una colonoscopia se elimino adenoma. C Cual es el tumore ghiandolare?
Egli encontrado sangre en las heces. Pu Puedo tener un cáncer de colon infectado?
Cuando para llevar una Cabo La detección del cáncer de colon
Los sintomas del Cáncer de Colon

Symptoms of colon cancer

Many people who are suffering from colon cancer do not appear to have any symptoms in the early stages of the disease. When colon cancer symptoms start a show, which varies from case to case and are related to the size

And the position of the tumor in the colon.

The symptoms of colon cancer and early signs may include:

Changes in normal activity and natural intestines, manifesting in diarrhea, constipation or changes in facial sight and defecation frequency, last more than two weeks
Bleeding from the anus or blood in the stool appearance
Hold in the abdominal area, reflected it: cramps (colic), gas and swollen pains
Highlights accompanied by abdominal pain
The symptoms of colon cancer are also accompanied by a feeling that the bowel movement has not been emptied into the intestine, Completely
Fatigue or weakness
Landing is not justified in pesos
The presence of blood in the stools may indicate the presence of a cancerous cancer, but may also refer to a number of other health problems. If pale red blood can be seen in the toilet paper it is probable that the origin of hemorrhoids (piles / hemorrhoids) or anal fissure Maybe (RIP / slit in exercise - anal fissure).

Also, some types of food such as beetroot or licorice (red licorice), which can make red stool. Iron substitutes (iron containing drugs) and some types of medicines used to treat diarrhea, you can change the color of a black stool. But this does not indicate the presence of colon cancer symptoms.

However, one Despite all of the above, it is advisable to check any signs of bleeding (blood) in the stools in a large and precisely by the doctor due to blood in the stools may indicate, in some cases, the most tumulus disease.

What is colon cancer
Colon-rectum tumors (or large tumor cancers) derive from the transformation of the epithelial cells that are responsible for the mucus production of the walls. Depending on their aggressive characteristics, they are defined as adenomas (benign forms) or adenocarcinomas (malignant forms).
What Are The Causes Of Colon Cancer?
It is not easy to determine all possible causes for developing this tumor; However, several studies have identified some causes related to diet and nutrition, other genetics, and some non-hereditary predisposing factors.
It's a frequent tumor
Colon cancer is a typical disease of the populations of industrialized countries and represents the second type of tumor in frequency with a higher incidence in the male and the elderly.
How do you care
Election therapy is the surgical one, which consists when possible in the complete removal of the tumor, to which in some cases, may be associated with systemic pharmacological treatments involving the administration of chemotherapeutic drugs (chemotherapy). Chemotherapy may be preceded by surgery (neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, with the aim of reducing the size of the tumor and making the surgery less demolished), followed by surgery (adjuvant chemotherapy, with the aim of reducing the risk of recovery Of disease) or may represent the only treatment option in cases of palliative chemotherapy non-viability with the purpose of slowing progression of tumor disease and delaying the onset of symptoms.
What to keep under control
Due to the wide extension and the various functions performed by the different intestinal tract sections, the signs and symptoms are often non-specific and of different magnitude; In the early stages the tumor is in most cases asymptomatic. Alarm bells can be represented by:

abdominal pain
weight loss
Changes in intestinal habits

 What is colon cancerThe intestine is a sort of very long tube (about 7 meters on average) subdivided into small intestine, or small intestine (in turn divided into duodenum, fasting and ileum), and intestine large, or large intestine. The large intestine is anatomically divided into several successive segments: the blind (beginning at the level of the ileococal valve), the right or ascending colon, the transverse colon, the left or lower colon and the sigma; The last stretch is represented by the rectum communicating with the outside through the anus. The task of the big intestine is to continue the food processing process that has already begun in the upstream section of the digestive channel and complete the absorption and secretion processes that eventually lead to the excretion of the "waste" material from the stools. The walls of the large intestine consist of several concentric layers; The innermost of these is called mucous tonsil and is rich in glands, formed by epithelial cells, whose main function is to produce and secrete mucus. Colon-rectum tumors (or large tumor cancers) derive from the transformation of these epithelial cells and, depending on their aggressive characteristics, are defined as adenomas (benign forms) or adenocarcinomas (malignant forms).

The size of the phenomenon

In the European population over 65, the incidence (new cases) estimated for colon cancer is 167 new cases per year for 100,000 men and 143 new cases per year for 100,000 women. In Italy, according to data from tumor registers, colorectal cancer in the 1998-2002 period was ranked 4th in terms of frequency among malignancies in men, representing 11% of total tumors, and 3 - placed in women representing 12% of the total. Among tumor deaths, colorectal tumors are ranked second in rank among men (10% of all cancer deaths) and among women (12%). In Italy every year about 89 cases of colorectal cancer are diagnosed every 100,000 men and 70 per 100,000 women every year. The estimates for Italy show a total of 20,457 new cases among men in 2002 and 17,276 among women, while 10,526 deaths and males and 9,529 deaths occurred among women. In men, the risk of colorectal cancer over the course of life (between 0 and 74 years) is 51 ‰ (1 case per 20 men), while in women it is 31, ‰ among females (1 case every 32 women). There is a fair geographical variability of incidence in our country with a ratio between the highest and the lowest rates (usually those of southern and island Italy) around 2. As far as trends over time are concerned, Colorectal cancer exhibits a tendency to increase incidence while mortality appears to be decreasing in the last thirty years; This observation is mainly related to the greater effectiveness of therapies, the possibility of early diagnosis and the introduction of screening. It is usually a middle-aged neoplasm: rarely occurs below the age of 45 and reaches a peak in people over the age of 75. The distribution of onset on the large intestine is varied: in 16% of cases it is located to the ascending blind and colon, in 8% to the spleen and spine, to 6% to the descending colon, to 20% to the sigma and to 50% In the rectum.

Risk factors

A risk factor is a condition, habit, or environmental or professional exposure that increases the likelihood of developing or contracting a particular disease: possessing one or more risk factors does not mean that you have the confidence to get sick. Only a small percentage of colon cancer cases, equal to about 5%, recognize a hereditary cause; In most cases of sporadic illnesses. Studies on migrant populations suggest that the risk of developing colon cancer is largely determined by environmental exposure: tumor incidence rates in populations emigrating from low risk areas to developing colon cancer tend to align with the Incidents of host countries as early as the emigrant's own generation. The main risk factors identified are:

Diet: diet is considered the main exogenous factor today identified; It has been estimated that about 70% of colon cancers can be prevented with dietary intervention. Excessive consumption of red and processed meat seems to predispose to the onset of this cancer while a diet rich in fruit and fiber but especially rich in vegetables would act in a protective sense. Vegetables contain many substances (both micronutrients such as carotenoids, folate and ascorbate, and bioactive substances such as phenols, flavonoids, histiocyanates and indoles with antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties). Obesity, overweight in adulthood and a diet rich in sugars, total and saturated fat seem to increase the risk of developing a neoplasm of the colic. Also insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia (especially if chronic) induced by excessive energy intake typical of Western countries diet seem to be a risk factor.
Alcohol abuse: The risk seems to be related to the total amount of alcohol taken, irrespective of the type of drink.
Physical activity: Physical activity, especially if done for the rest of your life, seems to diminish the risk of developing colon cancer.
Tobacco smoke: smoking at a young age seems to predispose to an increased risk of developing colon cancer; About 20% of the large intestine in the male sex appears to be attributable to smoking. There is also evidence that smoking is associated with the presence of adenomatous polyps (which may subsequently evolve in neoplasia).
The use of certain classes of drugs: chronic use of aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and treatment with hormone replacement therapy appear to be acting in a protective sense.
The presence of other pathologies: predisposing conditions appear to be chronic colonic inflammatory diseases such as ulcerative retortitis (RCU) and Crohn's disease. Patients with a history of malignant tumors are at increased risk of developing a second colorectal cancer. Most of the colon cancers result from the malignant transformation of polyps, or small benign growths, due to cell growth in the intestinal mucosa. The polyp can be defined as sessile (ie with flat plant base) or pedunculated (ie attached to the intestinal wall by a small stem). Not all polyps, however, can potentially evolve in a malignant way. There are, in fact, three different types: hyperplastic polyps (ie characterized by a rapid mucosa), amaromatosis polyps (also called polyps of juveniles and polyps of Peutz-Jeghers) and adenomatosis. Only the latter are precancerous lesions and only a small percentage of them can be transformed through a progressive evolutionary process in malignant neoplasm. The probability of evolution depends on the size (minimum ie less than 2%, for polyps of less than 1.5 cm in size, significant, ie greater than 10%, for polyps larger than 2.5 cm and the presence and amount of tissue hairy).
Genetic factors: Only in 5% of cases the colon cancer appears as a hereditary form. A genetic susceptibility to colon cancer has been attributed both to polypotic syndromes (familial adenomatosis polypeptide (FAP), Gardner syndrome, Turcot syndrome) and non-polypsy (HNPCC) inherited colon-rectal carcinoma syndrome.

How colon cancer manifests itself
Colon neoplasm diagnosis may be secondary to evidence of symptoms or may result from participation in a screening campaign. A number of factors (such as the anatomic site of onset, extension, presence or absence of obstructive or haemorrhagic phenomena) condition the appearance of clinical symptoms, but are extremely varied in its manifestations. Except for cases occurring with a occlusive or intestinal perforation, the time between the appearance of symptoms and diagnosis does not generally correlate with the prognosis. Since initial stage neoplasms tend to be paucisintomatic and because the symptoms are typically not specific and often neglected (changes in intestinal habits, vague abdominal pain, apparent fatigue loss, persistent fatigue), more and more efforts are being directed towards The enhancement of screening campaigns for the early diagnosis of rectal tumor cancer. For the right colon localization predominate aspecific symptoms, whereas for the left colon predominate disorders related to intestinal obstruction and abdominal pain, which may be due to obstruction of the intestinal lumen.


Abdominal pain
Weight loss weight loss
Palpable abdominal mass

Alterations of the air (constipation alternating with diarrhea)
Intestinal occlusion

Difficulty in evacuation
Melena )blood flow from the anus together with the stool)
Abdominal pain

It is advisable to consult specialist centers that can ensure, through extensive experience and oncology, better surgical and oncological / chemotherapeutic treatment, both potentially capable of affecting the patient's prognosis.2.4 DiagnosisA suspected presence of a Colon cancer must follow an accurate and standardized diagnostic pathway that will allow a rapid and correct diagnosis of confirmation or exclusion of the oncological disease. Scrupulous collection of upcoming and remote family, physiological and pathological anamnesis can help your physician identify individuals belonging to groups at greater risk of developing tumor disease. Diagnosis should be made primarily of a careful clinical examination potentially able to detect abdominal masses of probable intestinal pertinence, enlargement of the liver size and surface lymph nodes and the presence of free liquid in the cavity through abdominal palpation abdominal. Mandatory in any case of suspect tumor of the large intestine remains the execution of rectal exploration, which excludes the presence of localized neoformation at the last stretch of the intestinal canal and detects any macroscopic bleeding. There are several instrumental investigations, characterized by different levels of invasiveness, which can help in the diagnostic path:

COLONSCOPY: This is an examination that allows the intestinal wall to be visualized through the use of a fiber optic probe inserted through the anus and traced up to the ileococal valve if possible. Optical fibers illuminate the inner walls of the colon through which the instrument passes and replay the images on a screen. Colonoscopy also provides an indication for the diagnosis and treatment of colon polyps and also allows for a biopsy, that is to pick up a fragment of tissue to be sent to the microscopic examination. Examination is usually done without anesthesia, but it is possible to use calming and milder medications, which allow relaxation of the intestine wall to facilitate transit of the probe.
CLOSURE OPACO DOUBLE CONTRAST: It is a radiological technique performed after ingesting or introducing into the rectum and colon upstream a clinging of a gessous substance (called contrast medium) containing barium, a radiophoreal element that radiographs color the wall Intestinal white, allowing you to see the structure of the mucosa better and detect lesions of approximately approximately one centimeter. In order to allow a greater adhesion of the substance along the intestine, a drink is added to the patient (or introduced through the enema), which develops carbon dioxide which, by inflating the organ, facilitates the distribution of the contrast medium. Once a good barium distribution is obtained, the radiograph is made, which reveals any abnormal formations on the wall such as polyps or ulcers. For optimal execution, careful preparation is required for the patient to undergo the examination under perfect bowel cleanliness.
ECOGRAPHY: It is a method that uses the sound waves (ultrasounds) emitted by a particular probe that is slid over the skin surface to the area to be examined. Each type of tissue, depending on its density, absorbs or reflects some of the ultrasounds: the ultrasound is a machine that can transform reflected waves into images that appear on a screen. By requiring an immediate interpretation of the data transmitted by the on-screen scanner, this method is strongly influenced by the ability of the examining operator.

TRANS-RECTAL ECOENDOSCOPY: ultrasound of the internal structures forming the intestinal bowel wall using special ultra-thin probes inserted within the common endoscopes. Echosendoscopy allows the diagnostic definition of lesions of any site nature both within the gastrointestinal wall and in the adjacent structures, allowing the carrying out of tissues for histological examination.
TC (COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY OR TAC): until a few years ago it is known as the TAC (acronym for computerized axial tomography), since in the past only the central axis of the body was used as a reference point. In recent years, the equipment has evolved considerably and are able to rotate around the patient to provide images with a better detail. It is a completely painless technique, similar to that of X-rays (which uses X-rays) to obtain images of the internal organs as if they were examined with slices of variable thickness from 1 to 3 centimeters. More modern equipment (spiral TC) allows you to study even slimmer slices in an ever-smaller time.
MAGNETIC RESPONSE (MR): CT-like radiological methodology differentiates it because it does not employ X-rays but magnetic waves.
PET (Positron Emission Tomography): a diagnostic technique utilizing the use of radioactive substances to follow the pathway inside the human body of composting materials such as glucose, an irreplaceable source of energy for all cells in the human body. Tumor cells reproduce faster than healthy ones, so they require more energy: PET can locate in the body the outbreaks of altered metabolic cells, which can match tumor cells. Inflammatory cells may also have a faster metabolism than healthy cells, sometimes leading to differential diagnosis that is not always easy. In some centers, it has recently been made possible to run PET-TC in selected cases, which allows to supplement the information derived from the two methods, reducing the possibility of interpretive errors.
DETERMINATION OF TUMOR MARKERS: This is the assay (can be performed at any laboratory of analysis) on blood samples, substances such as CEA (gastrointestinal antigen) and gastrointestinal CA 19.9, generally present in low levels in samples taken from healthy subjects. The rise of these markers above reference levels (defined threshold levels) may be indicative of the presence of neoplastic disease. Unfortunately, the value of these substances is often influenced by different factors such as pharmacological therapies (eg some hypertensive drugs) and / or the presence of non-cancerous diseases (eg chronic colonic inflammatory diseases, gallbladder calculations) or, as Often happens for CEA, from the habit of smoking. Responding to a rise in levels of these sensitive but non-specific markers is therefore not sufficient to only diagnose colorectal cancer.


 What therapies are currently used
Depending on the stage of the tumor, the treatment of choice can only be surgical (with a radical or palliative intent, surgical preceded by chemotherapy (with the intention of making operable a tumor lesion that is not at the onset), surgical followed by chemotherapy, Only palliative chemotherapy.

 The First Choice: Surgery
 When should the surgery be appropriate

In the treatment of the tumor, the surgical approach is to choose from: Depending on the localization of the tumor, a radical treatment (complete removal of the tumor mass) or palliative treatment (aimed at relieving any symptoms caused by the presence of the disease, such as Obstruction and bleeding) The surgical procedures will be different depending on the anatomical position of the tumor (one can perform a right myocardial myocytosis, a total colectomy, an abdominal abdominal amputation, etc.) and provide for the removal of the tumor and a stroke Of healthy colon (called margin) and loco-regional lymph nodes (regional lymphadenectomy) to complete the staging. Often, it is necessary to perform a colon- stomy (temporary or definitive) that is to create a sort of "derivation" of the normal stool pathway that is expelled through a skin breach created in the abdomen and collected in special sores (a sort of sachets) adhered directly to the stomach (Abdominal surgical opening) through a special plaque.

What are the possible side effects of surgery

The location and stage of the tumor condition what type of surgery can be proposed by influencing the functional repercussions and the possible subsequent occurrence of any more or less reversible side effects. In general, programmed surgery exhibits less risk than surgery performed under emergency conditions.
Changes in bowel habits (especially the tendency to frequent evacuation and with partially formed stools) is in most cases transient and tends to improve over time.
Patients undergoing surgery requiring the creation of a temporary or definitive colon- stomy are supported and trained (there are qualified nurses specifically designated for this task) for the proper use of the presides necessary for proper and easier stomach management .

What psychological impact can the surgery have

When faced with the need for surgery, the patient can:

Fear that the intervention itself can cause damage to your body;
Express doubts about the need to undergo surgery (sometimes it may seem necessary to contact a second surgeon / oncologist to confirm the diagnosis and indication of the proposed treatment);
To feel threatened by their psycho-physical integrity (especially if the surgery involves the packaging of a stoma);
You do not want to get away, even temporarily, from your own affections and from your own home. In any case, it is necessary to establish a dialogue and trust relationship with the referring physician who will be able to answer any doubts and questions without fear To feel judged in any way. In some cases, the support of a professional figure such as the psychologist can help to deal with more serenity and awareness of a sometimes long and uncomplicated path of diagnosis and

 When chemotherapy is used

Chemotherapy, also known as the antiblastic therapy term, finds several applications in the treatment of colon cancer. There are several times during the natural history of a tumor, in which it can be indicated to undertake a chemotherapy treatment.

NEO-ADJUSTMENT OR PRIMARY CHEMIOTHERAPY: Prior to surgical intervention, narrow the size of the tumor mass and allow surgery as less invasive as possible. In some cases it is used to make surgically removable metastatic lesions (especially located in the liver) that are not at the time of diagnosis due to size.
PALLIATIC CHEMOTHERAPY: performed to reduce and / or contain tumor progression, improve the quality of life (reducing any symptoms) and, if possible, prolong the patient's survival. Chemotherapy schemes currently considered as a standard of treatment should include fluorouracil (in this case administered not only in the bolus but also through continuous infusion) and folinic acid, associated with oxaliplatin or at the dose of different dosages depending on the Therapeutic protocols. The use of fluorinated folic acid modulated only should be reserved for those patients whose clinical conditions have little to indicate aggressive treatment. In case of failure of a first line of treatment, there is the possibility of considering possible second-line chemotherapy treatment using different drugs; Third-line treatment may be proposed in selected cases. There are no significant differences in survival associated with the use of irinotecan followed by oxaliplatin in case of disease progression or vice versa (ie oxaliplatin followed by irinotecan). Clinical trials seem to demonstrate that the greatest benefits in terms of survival time from diagnosis are obtained through the use of all three advanced stage therapy drugs (fluorouracil, irinotecan, oxaliplatin). In addition, in cases Selected, the possibility of administering chemotherapeutic drugs in the form of tablets that are taken by mouth; Capecitabine (an oral fluoropyrimidine) for example, is capable of mimicking the effects of prolonged fluorouracil infusion because it is metabolised to fluorouracil after intake
Oral administration allows the patient to limit the need for hospitalization and to avoid the central venous catheter positioning needed for prolonged infusions. The degree of adherence to the doctor's instructions by the patient (so-called complience) should be optimal, since it is chemotherapeutic in all respects (so also with regard to possible side effects). Capecitabine may also be associated with other medications to be infused. Recently, the panoramic view of the available therapeutic weapons for colon cancer has enriched with new molecules, the so-called biological drugs, to be used alone or in combination with chemotherapists Already proven effectiveness. Specifically, two monoclonal antibodies have been recorded for the treatment of metastatic disease for a number of years: bevacizumab (directed against the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor) recorded in the first line treatment and cetuximab (directed against The receptor for the epidermal growth factor) recorded for treatment after progression to irinotecan. The cetuximab-related toxicities are typically cutaneous (skin rash similar to acne especially to the face and trunk, skin dryness, skin fracture and peri-nausea infections) associated with concentration modification of some Serum electrolytes (eg magnesium). Treatment with bevacizumab, on the other hand, has been shown to increase the risk of developing hypertension, proteinuria, bleeding episodes and venous and arterial thrombosis, scar formation delay and rarely colon perforations. The potential severity of some of the side effects, albeit rare, requires careful selection of patients to be treated with these molecules in order to prevent and reduce its appearance. CHEMIOTERAPY ADJUSTMENT: performed after surgery in cases where, although Surgery has been radical, there are reasonable grounds to believe that the patient has a high risk of reoccurrence of the tumor (this is the case, for example, in the case of lymph node involvement, large primitive tumor, clinical outbreak with intestinal or perforation occlusion Of the colon walls). In all these cases, the use of systemic chemotherapy is intended to reduce the risk of recurrence (tumor re-occurrence) and the appearance of metastasis through the elimination of any (possibly) tumor cells that the surgeon has not removed because he or she does not Visible to the naked eye or that had already been brought within the systemic circulation at the time of surgery (micrometastasis). Several recent studies have shown that the standard chemotherapy treatment proposed to radically operative patients for stage III colon cancer (or stage C according to Dukes classification) is represented by the association of oxaliplatin, fluorouracil and folinic acid (used to modulate Fluorouracil activity) administered intravenously for 6 months; The most widely used schedule is known with the acronym of FOLFOX4. For patients for whom oxaliplatin is contraindicated, it should be considered an infusion of fluorouracil and oral folic acid or capecitabine infusion. In patients with stage II colon cancer (Stage B of Dukes), the possibility of undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered within clinical trials or in cases where presenting characteristics exist, High risk of recurrence)eg Stage IIb).

How does chemotherapy work

Chemotherapy employs drugs capable of killing cancer cells through various operating mechanisms (most of which block replication) and called anti-tumor or anti-rhinochemical chemotherapy. These drugs can be administered by mouth (or by os) or injected (intramuscular or endovenous); The latter route of administration is the most widely used one. Different types of medication can be administered individually or in combination, as is often the case with well-recognized and internationally recognized treatment schemes, defined for convenience with acronyms (eg FUFA, FOLFOX, FOLFIRI, DE GRAMONT, Etc.) that allow the experts to understand what the drugs to be administered and to which dosage, with which modes, with what time and with what time interval. In this case, chemotherapy is defined as systemic because once entered into the bloodstream drugs are transported throughout the body. In some cases chemotherapy is associated with radiotherapy treatment (especially in rectal neoplasms).
For the administration of infusion chemotherapy it is often necessary to position a central venous catheter. The central venous catheter is a soft and foldable silicone tubing about 90 cm long that is used to connect a large vein with the outside and is used to make blood drawings, infuse drugs and chemotherapists, transfusions or nourish the patient without Resort to repeated, annoying and painful bites. The catheter is inserted by the surgeon into a large vein of the neck, succlavia or jugular, through a small incision on the skin, and is pushed to the heart in the right atrium. A radiograph will confirm the exact position of the catheter. The incision of the "entry point" is closed with few points that will be removed after a few days. A short portion of the catheter remains free externally, for about 15 to 30 cm, is closed by a special "screw" cap, and in periods during which the catheter is not used it is covered by a sterile gauze dressing. The catheter is not known under clothing, and contrary to what you can think very few are the limitations associated with its presence. There is also the possibility of placing a fully subcutaneous catheter that limits the risk of infections but requires a more invasive procedure for positioning and removing the same. Central venous access control can also be done at home, paying attention to the insertion point. There is also the possibility of infusing selective chemotherapeutic treatment through liver cirrhosis (intraarterial hepatic chemotherapy), in the presence of non-technically operable metastases: to undergo this type of therapy, which often limits the toxic effects resulting from the use of Antiblastics, it is necessary to position a catheter (a thin tube) in the artery that carries blood to the liver and metastatic lesions. Through this catheter, the drug is taken directly into metastases.
In the case of non-operability of liver injury, it may in some cases be considered the treatment of metastases by introducing, by means of a thin needle, chemical or high-temperature substances that inactivate the disease and block its sources of blood supply Respectively chemioembolization, and thermoablation

What are the most common side effects
The side effects of chemotherapy depend primarily on the type of medication used and the mode of administration.

NAUSA AND VOMIT: due to direct stimulation by the drugs of the area of ​​the brain that controls vomiting; There are also cases in which the underlying mechanism of these disorders is to be found in the particular emotionality of the patient and not in the potential emetogenic (ie the ability to induce nausea and vomiting) of the drugs. Great progress has been made in recent years in an effort to prevent and control this side effect: in fact, excellent antiemetic, antiserotinergic and steroidal drugs are used.
DIARRE: Due to irritation of colon mucus by chemotherapy drugs. They are used with successive categories of anti-diarrheal drugs but play a key role in the diet and the state of hydration of the patient. Rarely, constipation is observed, due mainly to reduced intestinal motility that may result in the use of anti-emetic drugs used to control nausea and vomiting.
HAIR LOSS (ALOPECIA): hair loss and hair loss can be partial (with thinning and fragility) or complete and in any case transient because the regrowth of the same is immediately after chemotherapy interruption. It is important to remember that not all chemotherapists cause alopecia. Hair dyeing and permanent use are not recommended during the chemotherapy treatment period and immediately afterwards.
CHANGES IN EMATOLOGICAL VALUES (anemia, pyastrinopenia, leucopenia-neutropenia): During chemotherapy treatment periodic blood tests should be performed because there is often a marked reduction in the number of blood cell populations. This is because these cells, similarly to tumors, replicate at a faster rate than normal ones and are therefore more susceptible to the side effects of antiblastics. By the term "anemia" is meant the reduction of red blood cells; Plateletopenia is platelet reduction and leukopenia of total white blood cells, whose neutrophil subpopulation (whose deficiency is called neutropenia) is kept in great care because it is embedded in immune defenses.


. How to Determine Colon Cancer Stage
Colon cancer diagnosis, it is indispensable to define certain characteristics so that it can determine the stage; The correct staging of the tumor will allow you to plan proper treatment and estimate the prognosis of the patient.

Two classifications are most used for staging (also called staging) of colorectal cancer: TNM and Dukes classification.

In the TNM three parameters are taken into account:

T: the size of the tumor mass 2.N: the localization of the tumor cells within the regional lymph nodes i.e. near the tumor allamas

.M: the absence / presence of remote metastases (and which may also be represented by non-locoregional lymph nodes, i.e. located at a distance from the tumor mass of origin). The TNM system provides a clinical classification (pre-treatment, generally referred to as cTNM) and a pathological (post-surgical histopathology, referred to as pTNM). When no prefix is ​​specified, it generally refers to the clinical classification. The pTNM is the basis of the prognostic evaluation.

The classification of Dukes (from the name of anatomopathologist who invented it in 1932) is based on anatomic-surgical criteria; Today's commonly used version is called "modified" by Astler and Coller (MAC). 3/4 stages (3 in the classical version and 4 four in the modified version) are recognized with progressively inguistic prognosis (A, B, C and D).

Top 5 herbs resist colon cancer:

 - Turmeric: Clinical experiments have shown that the use of turmeric is effective in the treatment of colon cancer and it stops the growth and proliferation of cancer cells and is a powerful antioxidant.

Garlic: Garlic helps to stop the growth of cancer cells in an effective way. Because of a natural chemical called alicine.

 - Ginger: It has the ability to slow the spread of cancer in the colon and surrounding body tissue

. Flaxseeds: They are a good source of Omega-3 anti-cancer. Regular use helps to reduce tumor growth in the colon by killing cancer cells. It is therefore recommended to take two tablespoons of flaxseed a day.

 - Sage: slows the drinking of sage sage growth and growth of cancer cells. This is due to the presence of essential oils in this herb.

General informations

With the term prognosis, the physician indicates the likelihood that the indicated cure is successful; These are statistical data obtained from several studies that monitor the course of the disease in a large number of patients. Physicians often express survival rates evaluated at five and ten years from the start of treatment. It is important to remember that these statistics are indicative: no physician is able to define exactly what the outcome of the treatment will be in a single patient or quantify survival. In the case of colon cancer, prognosis depends on the stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis.

 Prognosis in Colon Cancer

The factor that most strongly affects the average survival is the stage of disease to diagnosis; About 20% of patients are affected by metastatic disease at onset. Five-year survival after diagnosis is 90% in localized disease (Stage I), 70-80% and 40-50% respectively in locally extended disease (Stage II) and in lymph node disease (Stage III) respectively, And finally 25-30% in metastatic disease (stage IV). Though the incidence is increasing in the western hemisphere, mortality appears stationary while survival at 5 years has significantly increased in recent decades. In Italy, just over half of people with colon cancer die for this disease.

Contact your doctor for more information. The information provided on (what the health) is of a general nature and for purely disclosure purposes can in no way replace the advice of a physician (or a legally qualified person) or, in specific cases, of other operators health.

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