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Alzheimer

Alzheimer's is a primary neurodegenerative disorder that usually appears after age 65, but may also occur among younger people. When a person suffers from Alzheimer's disease, he experiences microscopic changes in the tissue of certain parts of his brain and a progressive but constant loss of a chemical, vital for brain function called acetylcholine. This substance allows nerve cells to communicate with each other and is involved in mental activities linked to learning, memory and thinking.


Causes
Alzheimer's occurs due to reduced brain production of acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter), which causes a deterioration in the performance of the cholinergic circuits of the brain system.

It is difficult to determine who will develop Alzheimer's disease, since it is a complex disorder, of unknown cause, in which multiple factors appear to intervene. These are some of the elements that can increase the chances of suffering this pathology.

Age: usually affects the elderly of 60-65 years, but also have occurred among children under 40. The average age of diagnosis is in the 80, since it is considered that Alzheimer's disease is a disease favored by the age.

Sex: Women have it more often, probably because they live longer.

Races: affects all races equally.

Family inheritance: Familial Alzheimer's disease, a variant of the pathology that is transmitted genetically, accounts for 1 percent of all cases. However, it is estimated that 40 percent of Alzheimer's patients have a family history.

Genetic Factor: Several mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene, or presenilin 1 and 2 gene. It could also be associated with mutations in the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene. This protein is involved in the transport and elimination of cholesterol. According to research, nicastrin would activate beta amyloid production.

Environmental factors: Tobacco has been shown to be a clear risk factor for pathology, as are fat 
diets. On the other hand, belonging to a large family also seems to influence the risk of Alzheimer's.
symptom
At first, small and imperceptible losses of memory emerge, but with the passage of time, this deficiency becomes more and more notorious and incapacitating for the affected one, that will have problems to realize daily tasks and simple, and also, more intellectual ones, Such as speaking, understanding, reading, or writing.

Neurological symptoms

Alzheimer's disease affects memory in its different types. These are the deteriorations suffered:

Short-term memory loss: inability to retain new information.

Long-term memory loss: Inability to remember personal information such as birthdays or profession.

Alteration in reasoning ability.

Aphasia: loss of vocabulary or misunderstanding of common words.

Apraxia: lack of control over one's own muscles, for example, inability to button a shirt.

Loss of spatial ability: disorientation, even in known places.

Character changes: irritability, confusion, apathy, decay, lack of initiative and spontaneity.
Prevention
The experts' recommendations focus mainly on two key points: early detection of early symptoms, and exercise of memory and intellectual function. In addition, maintaining a balanced diet, low in fat, protects against cognitive impairment, in addition, vitamin E exerts a protective effect. In general, maintaining healthy lifestyles can reduce 40 percent of Alzheimer's cases, according to the Spanish Society of Neurology (SEN).

There are also some non-genetic risk factors that can determine when Alzheimer's begins to appear:

Educational level: the more years of training a person has, the later the possible effects of Alzheimer's will appear, since having been exercising memory strengthens the brain.

Cardiovascular health: There are alterations of the cardiovascular system that can affect a person's cognitive system, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, lack of physical exercise or smoking.

Cranioencephalic trauma: knowledge can be lost in the impact.

Depression: may favor the onset of Alzheimer's or a cerebrovascular disease.
The exercise of memory and intellectual activity does not have to match the educational or cultural level of the person. The seven-minute test is used for the early detection of the disease, and it investigates the most frequently disturbed areas of Alzheimer's disease: orientation, memory, visual perception and language. The test is divided into several areas:

Orientation: Ask the person you suspect to be affected, to identify what day, month and year you are in. The lower degree of error is confused on the day of the week or the day of the month, the greater, a confusion in the month or the year.

Memory: The observed subject has to identify 16 figures present in 4 sheets of different images. You must indicate what type of object or figure to look for. When you have correctly identified the object, the sheet is saved and another sheet is drawn, on which another object is asked. When you identify the 16 figures, you are made to rest, think about something else and then you are asked to repeat the 16 figures and objects identified that you can remember.

Visual perception: ask for the drawing of a watch, with the hands marking four to twenty. Rate the result, according to the correction of the drawing.

Language: To assess oral fluency, you have to name as many animals as you can in a minute.
The Foundation of the Brain and the Spanish Foundation of Neurological Diseases give as a conclusion a series of preventive measures that can be carried out taking into account all of the above:

Maintain control of vascular risk factors.

Maintain a healthy lifestyle, following a diet like the Mediterranean and avoiding saturated fats, or perform physical exercise for at least two hours a week.
Encourage cognitive activity with activities such as speaking several languages, playing musical instruments, reading, studying a career, doing group activities or practicing intellectual games such as chess.

Types
Depending on the stage in which the patient is, the following stages are present:

Stage Light: The damage of the disease still goes unnoticed, both for the patient, as for the relatives. The patient forgets little things, such as where he has placed the keys, or has difficulty finding a word. At this stage you can still work or drive a car, although you may begin to experience lack of spontaneity, initiative and certain depressive features. Judgment capacity is reduced and it has difficulty solving new situations and organizing activities. Signs of apathy and isolation and changes of hum
Other data
Depression, or certain depressive symptoms, may be the first sign of Alzheimer's disease. Depression can cause states of confusion, difficulty concentrating and paying attention, although all these symptoms improve when dealing with the underlying problem.

Another factor complicating the diagnosis is the coexistence of both pathologies. In patients with Alzheimer's, the detection of depression is quite complicated for the practitioner, since they are people unable to explain how they feel.

As clear signs that a person with Alzheimer's also suffers from depression, they are:

Loss of appetite.
Sleep disturbances.
Loss of energy and initiative.
Feelings of low self-esteem.
Irritability and anxiety.
Low concentration.
These symptoms usually appear together in a person with Alzheimer's, although the diagnosis can only be established by the specialist doctor with more extensive tests. From this diagnosis, it may be necessary to start treatment with antidepressants.

Possible cure
The SEN says that research on Alzheimer's has made great strides over the last few years, but at the moment no cure has been found that can completely remit Alzheimer's symptoms.

When to Contact a Medical Professional
Alzheimer's in its mildest stage often goes unnoticed, because forgetting certain data is related in most cases as a symptom of age. According to Pablo Martinez-Lage, SEN specialist, "if, at any given moment, you do not remember a fact or forget what you were doing or thinking, you should go to the doctor when you find repeated errors in recent memory . Going to the neurologist soon is another key to being able to treat and thus slow down this dementia. "

Epidemiology
According to the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology, Alzheimer's affects five to ten percent of the population over the age of 65, and as the age advances, the chances of suffering it become even greater.

Age and sex may be predictors of the disease: men tend to have a higher mortality rate because of Alzheimer's than women. In any case, a survival between 3.4 and 5.9 years from diagnosis is estimated, according to the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (Cerad).

According to the Spanish Society of Neurology, in Spain there were 600,000 cases of Alzheimer's in 2014, and it is expected that this figure will increase with the passage of time: each year 40,000 new cases of Alzheimer's appear, and by the year 2050 they are estimated A million and a half affected. All this is due to the progressive aging of the population.

History
Alzheimer's is first described as a neurodegenerative disease in the year 1906 by German psychiatrist and neurologist Alois Alzheimer, which is called the pathology. The first person to be diagnosed was Auguste Deter, Alois Alzheimer's patient in 1901. She was a 50-year-old woman suffering from a degenerative disease, progressive dementia, and the study of her disease and her follow-up was what 
made Alzheimer's define A few years later the disease.
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Amenorrhea

Amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation on a prolonged basis and may affect women of any age.

A woman is considered to have amenorrhea when she has had normal menstrual cycles and suddenly stops menstruating for six or more months.

If the woman is pregnant, breastfeeding or at menopause, it is not considered amenorrhoea.

In elite athletes, dancers or women who carry out extreme diets, amenorrhea frequently appears. In addition, this pathology is linked to anorexia.

Causes
The main causes why the woman stops having the period are due to hormonal alterations of the hypothalamus and pituitary.

Others may be:

Organic problems in the vaginal canal or uterus or ovaries.

Weight-related disorders: such as obesity or the reduction of weight very suddenly with extreme diets, after a reduction of stomach or diseases such as anorexia.

Non-perforated hymen: Women have normal discomfort in menstruation but hymen hinders exit to the outside.

Excess secretion of prolactin, usually caused by the intake of medications.

Have intense anxiety or stress.

Presence of ovarian cysts or ovarian failure.
symptom
The manifestations that can accompany the absence of the menstruation are:

Change in breast size.
Secretion of the breasts.
Vaginal dryness.
Weight gain or loss.
Increased body hair.
Acne.
Changes in the voice.
Headache.
Prevention
The best way to prevent amenorrhea is to lead a healthy life that includes good nutrition, continued moderate exercise, sleep recommended hours, limit stress and use of tobacco and alcohol.

In the case of athletes, these should especially watch for food, always balanced, and hours of sleep.

Types
There are two types of amenorrhea:

Primary
It occurs when the woman has never menstruated. The age limit, although indicative, is set at 16 years. If the adolescent has normal growth and the sexual organs develop properly, it is considered that the absence of menstruation, from that age, is not normal.

High school
Secondary amenorrhea occurs in women who, having menstruated regularly, stop having the menstrual period for at least three consecutive menstrual cycles.

Diagnosis
The first step that the specialist will give is to rule out a possible pregnancy. In addition, the specialist will measure the levels of certain hormones, such as prolactin, estradiol, testosterone or thyroid, among others.

Other tests that you can ask for include magnetic resonance imaging, a biopsy, or an ultrasound scan that may help confirm the diagnosis.

Treatments
The therapy to be followed by the patient will depend on the causes of amenorrhea. When these problems are resolved, menstruation will be restored.

In women whose cause is obesity, for example, playing sports and following a balanced diet will help control weight and regain the menstrual cycle.

However, if the cause is a thyroid hormone problem, treatment should be directed at improving this condition.

Other data
Forecast
The evolution of amenorrhea will depend on the cause that causes the disease. However, most respond well to treatment.

When a woman detects that she has had more than one period absence, it is advisable to make an appointment with the gynecologist to confirm the disease.
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Tonsillitis

Tonsillitis is a type of infection that is very co
mmon among children but is less common in adults. This condition consists of an inflammation of the throat and tonsils caused by different types of viruses or bacteria, such as group A streptococci; Responsible for the causes of streptococcal tonsillitis, which is the most common.

This type of bacteria can also live on both the nose and throat without causing any disease and spread by contact with the cough drops or sneeze of a person who is infected.

Causes
The tonsils is lymphatic tissue that is responsible for eliminating bacteria or microorganisms that can enter the body and cause infections. They are found in the back of the mouth and in the upper region of the throat.

The most common cause of tonsillitis is not only contact with the secretions of an infected person, but also share the glass, plate or cutlery, as well as contact with the sores of group A streptococcal infections on the skin.

Bacterial forms of tonsillitis occur less frequently than viral ones, but if not treated properly they can be severe.

symptom
The most common symptoms of this condition are:

Inflammation of the tonsils.
Ulceration.
Nasal congestion.
Appearance of white or yellow areas on the tonsils.
Sore throat that usually lasts more than 48 hours.
Difficulty swallowing, also called dysphagia.
Cough.
Pain in the head, ears and eyes.
Fever and chills.
Sensitivity of the jaw and throat.
One of the complications that can occur if the tonsils are very large are possible respiratory problems, although they are not too frequent.
Prevention
To prevent tonsillitis, the following recommendations should be taken into account:

Wash hands frequently, especially after going to the bathroom and before eating.
Avoid sharing food, glasses and utensils.
Stay away from people who may be infected, especially when they sneeze or cough.
Types
The types of tonsil infections are classified according to the source: virus or bacteria.

Tonsillitis caused by viruses: Like the Epstein Barr, which causes most cases of this disease.
The infection will be diagnosed through a blood test that will determine if the white blood cell count is high or the cells are abnormal.

Treatment of this infection focuses on the reduction of inflammation.

Tonsillitis caused by bacteria: When the group A streptococcus bacteria causes the infection, a throat swab will be performed, confirming the existence of the bacteria.
Diagnosis
First, the specialist performs an examination of the patient's mouth and throat to observe the condition of the tonsils. This will conclude that the patient suffers from tonsillitis if the tonsils are red or have white patches.

Another test that can confirm the diagnosis is that the lymph nodes in the jaw and neck are swollen and are sensitive to touch.

The specialist may also decide to perform a rapid test for streptococci, but it is not entirely reliable because of its extreme immediacy. Another option is to send a pharyngeal sample to a laboratory to perform a streptococcal culture.

Crop results may be delayed for a few days.

Treatments
Those infections of tonsils that do not present pain do not require treatment, although it is possible that the specialist requests that the patient returns for a control analysis.

In case the test results are positive, the patient will be prescribed antibiotics that should be taken even when they refer the symptoms, according to the indications of the specialist.

To reduce sore throat, the patient is advised to keep the following advice in mind:

You can drink cold liquids or eat ice creams. It is important that the fluids you take are not hot as they may intensify the pain.

Gargling with warm salt water also reduces the burning sensation.
In some cases in which the infections are repetitive can be carried out the removal of the tonsils.

Other data
Tonsillitis can be more or less contagious, depending on the causative agent: if it is a virus, it can usually spread if the person to whom it is infected has not been in contact with the virus before; In the case of bacteria, the condition is easily transmitted, especially the streptococcal.

In cases where chronic tonsillitis is caused or caused by other conditions such as sinusitis or allergic rhinitis, it is usually not contagious.

Contact your doctor for more information. The information provided on (what the health) is of a general nature and for purely disclosure purposes can in no way replace the advice of a physician (or a legally qualified person) or, in specific cases, of other operators health.



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