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Early ejaculation-Encephalitis-Cerebral edema

Pulmonary edema

Pulmonary edema is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs, which causes them to swell.

Causes: Pulmonary edema is usually caused by heart failure. When the heart does not work well, pressure in the veins passes through the lungs and starts to rise. As the pressure in these blood vessels increases, the fluid is pushed into air spaces (alveoli) in the lungs. This fluid interrupts the normal circulation of oxygen through the lungs, resulting in a lack of breath. Pulmonary edema may be caused by damage directly to the lung, such as the one caused by poisonous gases or serious infections. Lungs damage with a build up of body fluids was also detected with renal failure.



Pulmonary edema may also be a complication of heart attack, loss or reduction of cardiac valve (mitral valve and aortic valve), or any heart disease resulting in a weakening or stiffening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy).

SYMPTOMS: The most common are:

Anxiety;
Cough;
Difficulty breathing;
Excessive sweating;
Feeling of need for air or "death for drowning";
Rattle or gurgling with breathing;
Pale skin;
agitation;
Lack of breath;
Orthopnea, that is, lack of breath only when it is lying (you may need to sleep with your head leaned or use so many pillows);
Wheezing.
Additional symptoms that may be associated with this disease:

Cough with blood or foam;
Decreasing level of consciousness;
Inability to express yourself;
Nasal burning.
DIAGNOSIS: Your doctor will do a physical examination and use a stethoscope to listen to the lungs and heart. You may have:

Abnormal sounds in the lungs or in the heart;
Increased heart rate;
Blue or pale skin color;
Quick breathing.
Possible tests include:

Blood oxygen levels (in patients with edema are low);
Rays-X to the chest (may reveal fluid around the lung or enlarged heart);
Electrocardiogram (to detect heart rhythm abnormalities or heart attack tests);
Heart ultrasound (echocardiogram) (to see if there is weakness in the heart muscle or anomalies in the valves, or fluid surrounding the heart).
THERAPY: Oxygen is administered through a mask or tiny plastic tubes placed in the nose. A breathing tube can be inserted into the trachea. A breathing machine may be needed. The cause of edema should be quickly identified and treated. Diuretics such as furosemide (Lasix) can be assigned to help release excess water into the body with urine. Drugs to strengthen the heart muscle, control its rhythm, or to relieve heart pressure may also be given.

PROGNOSIS: Although pulmonary edema is a life-threatening condition, it is possible to heal. This depends on the cause and the therapy being assigned. Possible complications may be that some patients may need to use a machine to breathe for a long time. If not cared for, this condition may be fatal.

Contact a doctor if you have breathing problems.

PREVENTION: If you have an illness that can lead to pulmonary edema, you should be sure to take any medication according to the instructions. A healthy diet, usually a low salt, can significantly reduce the risk of this condition.

Sources: [Hess OM, Carroll JD. Clinical evaluation of heart failure. In: Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 8a ed. Philadelphia, PA; Elsevier Saunders, 2007; http://health.nytimes.com/health/; American College of Cardiology / American Heart Association. ACC / AHA Task Force on Guidelines. Update for 2001 Guidelines for Evaluation and Management of Heart Failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005]

Contact your doctor for more information. The information provided on (what the health) is of a general nature and for purely disclosure purposes can in no way replace the advice of a physician (or a legally qualified person) or, in specific cases, of other operators health.
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Cerebral edema

Brain edema is a serious alteration of the central nervous system (encephalus) characterized by increased interstitial or intracellular fluid due to compression and excessive endocranial pressure, which is manifested by a rapid swelling of the cerebral tissue. Let's look at what are the causes, the symptoms, the diagnosis and the therapy.


Causes: interstitial or intracellular fluid build up within the brain is related to different mechanisms than those that cause edema in other organs and tissues. Indeed, the causes of this increase are attributable to an alteration of the self-regulating system within the cranial box, which ensures the maintenance of a correct pressure of cefalorachidic fluid. In pathological conditions this delicate balance is subverted by triggering a number of harmful consequences, such as:

Loss of selective permeability of the cell membrane
Liquid pH changes
Accumulation of toxic substances and metabolites
Lack of physiological neurotransmitters
Presence of pathological neurotransmitters
Blocking mechanisms that can actively transport the various substances through the membranes
Nervous tissue, in this way, faces severe compressive phenomena, which in turn result in further functional deterioration, obstructing normal blood perfusion. Brain edema can be classified as:

Interstitial cerebral edema: It is also termed hydrocephalic and manifests itself in hypertensive hydrocephalus when the ependymal cell recurrence of liquor is insufficient.
Cytotoxic cerebral edema: it is also called cellular and is characterized by a swelling of the cells of the glia, the endothelium and the neurons. It is characteristic of hypoxic and ischemic diseases, but it can also occur in case of hyponatremia, osmotic imbalances, ADH unsuitable secretion syndrome and liver precoma.
Vasogenic cerebral edema: it is delimited to the sole white matter of the brain and is caused by the increase in the permeability of endothelial capillary cells, whereby proteins and water escalate into extracellular spaces. It forms close to expanding encephalic masses (cysts, tumors, abscesses) or in the case of toxic and hypertensive encephalopathies.
SYMPTOMS: The symptoms of cerebral edema include:

Headache
Dizziness
Memory loss
Altered level of consciousness
Nausea
Numbness or weakness
Convulsions
Incontinence
Lethargy
Loss of coordination or balance
Coma
DIAGNOSIS: computerized tomographic examination (brain CT) is the first investigation to allow direct diagnosis of cerebral edema. The RM, on the other hand, has greater resolution power and is able to obtain images of water diffusion in the capillaries, cellular interstices and between the various tissue compartments, enabling the cytotoxic edema of a recent ischemic lesion to be recognized by a chronic .

THERAPY: Therapy aims to reduce intracranial pressure and hence the brain volume and is based on pharmacological, but also surgical, prescriptions. High-performance anti-haemorrhagic corticosteroids are the choice therapy in vasogenic cerebral edema. Positive but temporary effects are also obtained with some non-osmotic diuretics (es, furosemide, acetazolamide). In cytotoxic cerebral edema, the therapy is etiologic and supportive, while for interstitial cerebral edema, liquor delivery (or ventricular drainage) is performed.

Surgical therapy includes:

Removal of the edemigenic lesion: involves the radical removal of the mass to prevent the regeneration of the lesion. This, however, can only occur when the lesion is benign.
Ventricular drainage: is performed in patients with obstructive hydrocephalus.
Decompression Craniotomy: It is performed on patients with cerebral edema, but with no radiological signs of ischemia, those with intracerebral hemorrhage and above all those with cerebral-traumatic trauma.
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Early ejaculation

Early ejaculation occurs when a man has an orgasm during reports before his partner desires it.

Causes: Early ejaculation is a common problem. It is rarely caused by a physical problem. Often it is caused by anxiety or too much stimulation. Other psychological factors may also be involved. The condition usually improves without therapy.

SYMPTOMS: The man ejaculates before the partner wants to. This may vary from before penetration to a moment soon after it occurs. This can leave a feeling of dissatisfaction in the couple.

DIAGNOSIS: Usually there are no abnormal results in analyzes that diagnose the condition. The doctor can get useful information by asking questions to the person concerned or the couple.

THERAPY: Practice and relaxation can help tackle the problem. Some men try to distract themselves by making non-sexual thoughts (like trying to remember names of footballers) to avoid getting excited too fast. There are several useful techniques that you can try.

The "stop and go" method: This technique involves sexual stimulation until the man feels close to the orgasm. Stop the stimulation for about 30 seconds and then restart again. Repeat this technique until the man wants to ejaculate.

The "squeezing" method: This technique involves man's sexual stimulation until he realizes that he is about to ejaculate. At that point, the man or his partner gently squeezes the tip of the penis for a few seconds. This stops sexual stimulation for about 30 seconds, and then rejuvenates again. You can repeat this technique until the man wants to ejaculate.

Antidepressants such as Prozac and other selective serotonin inhibitors can be useful because one of their side effects is to prolong the time needed to reach ejaculation. You can apply a local anesthetic cream on the penis to reduce the stimulation. The feeling is diminished and may delay ejaculation. Condom use may also have this effect in some men. For some couples a consultation with a sexologist, psychologist or psychiatrist is necessary.

PROGNOSIS: In most cases, man is able to learn to control ejaculation through the education and practice of the techniques described. Early chronic ejaculation can be a sign of anxiety or depression. A psychiatrist or psychologist can help cure these conditions. Possible complications may be:

Very premature ejaculation before the man enters the vagina;
A persistent lack of control over ejaculation can cause one or both partners a feeling of sexual dissatisfaction. It can lead to tensions in the report.
PREVENTION: There is no way to prevent this candle. However, relaxation can make it less likely to occur.

Sources: [Read TF, Broderick GA. Nonsurgical evaluation and management of erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell Walsh-Urology. 9a ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders, 2007; http://health.nytimes.com/health/; Moore PS, Jefferson JW. Early ejaculation. In: Moore DP, Jefferson JW, eds. Handbook of Medical Psychiatry. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2004]

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Hepatic hemangioma

Hepatic hemangioma is a benign liver cancer made of dilated blood vessels.

Causes: Hepatic hemangioma is the benign tumor of the most common liver. It is believed to be a congenital defect. Hepatic hemangiomas can occur at any time, but are more common in people between the ages of 30 and 50. Women are more affected than men.

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Children may develop a type of hepatic hemangioma called benign infantile hemangiodothelioma (also called multicellular hepatic hemangiomasosis). This rare cancerous cancer has been linked to high rates of heart failure and death in infants. Babies are usually diagnosed around 6 months of age.

SYMPTOMS: Some hemangiomas can cause hemorrhage or interfere with organ function, depending on their position. Most cavernosal hemangiomas do not produce symptoms. In rare cases, a cavernous hemangioma may break.
DIAGNOSIS: Hepatic hemangioma is not usually discovered until a liver imaging test is performed for some other reason. If there is a cavernous hemorrhagic rupture, the only sign may be an enlarged liver. Children with benign infantile hemangioendothelioma may have:

Abdomen of the abdomen;
Anemia;
Signs of heart failure.
The following tests can be performed:

Blood analysis;
Liver TAC;
Liver angiogram;
Magnetic resonance imaging;
Single-photon computerized tomography (SPECT);
Abdominal ultrasound.
THERAPY: Liver cervical hemangiomas for the most part are treated only if there is persistent pain. The treatment for infantile hemangioendothelioma depends on the baby's growth and development. The following treatments may be needed:

Inserting a material into a liver blood vessel to block it (embolization);
Ligation of a liver artery;
Cardiac insufficiency drugs;
Surgery to remove the tumor.
PROGNOSIS: In infants whose tumor is only in a liver lobe, surgery is possible even if the child has heart failure. Possible complications may be higher as a result of pregnancy and estrogen-based drugs.
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Encephalitis

Encephalitis is an irritation and swelling of the brain, usually due to infections. It is most often caused by a viral infection. Many types of viruses can cause it. Exposure to the virus can occur through:

Inhalation of respiratory droplets from an infected person;
Food contamination;
Bites of insects;
Skin contact.
In rural areas, arboviruses, run by mosquitoes or ticks, or accidentally ingested, are the most common cause. In urban areas, enteroviruses are more common, including:

Coxsackievirus;
echovirus;
Poliovirus.
Other viruses that can cause encephalitis are:

Adenovirus;
Cytomegalovirus;
Equine Oriental Encephalitis Virus;
Epstein-Barr virus;
Herpes simplex infection;
Measles;
Mumps;
Anger;
Rubella;
Varicella (or herpes zoster);
Western Nile Virus.
Patients with AIDS and other high-risk patients may develop encephalitis due to parasites such as:

Some nematodes;
cysticercosis;
Toxoplasmosis.
Although most forms of encephalitis are caused by viruses, the condition may also be caused by bacterial diseases, such as:

Lyme syndrome;
Syphilis;
Tuberculosis.
Very rarely, an allergic reaction to vaccinations, autoimmune diseases, and cancer effects can also cause encephalitis. It's a rather rare disease. Seniors and children are more vulnerable and may have the most serious cases.

SYMPTOMS: When the virus enters the bloodstream, it can cause inflammation of the surrounding cerebral tissue and membranes. White blood cells invade the brain tissue as they try to fight the infection. The cerebral tissue swells (cerebral edema), and can destroy nerve cells, cause brain bleeding (intracerebral hemorrhage), and brain damage. Symptoms include:

Goofy, unstable pace;
Confusion, disorientation;
Drowsiness;
Temperature;
Headache;
Irritability or difficulty in controlling;
Light sensitivity;
Stiff neck;
He retched.
Symptoms that indicate an emergency state are:

Loss of consciousness, poor responsiveness, coma;
Muscular weakness or paralysis;
Epileptic attacks;
Sudden change in mental functions such as diminished interest in daily activities, lack of humor or mood that is inappropriate for the situation, disturbance in judgment, extreme rigidity, self-censorship, indecision, or subtraction from social interaction;
Memory Loss (amnesia).
DIAGNOSIS: The visit may include:

Anomalous reflections;
Intracranial pressure increase;
Mental confusion;
Ulcers at the mouth;
Muscle weakness;
Neck rigidity;
Signs in other organs, such as the liver and lungs;
Bruises;
Problems in talking.
Tests may include:

Magnetic resonance to the brain;
TC cap scanning;
Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, blood or urine (however, this test is rarely useful);
Electroencephalogram;
Lumbar puncture;
Tests that detect antibodies for a virus (serological tests);
Tests that detect small amounts of DNA from the virus (polymerase chain reaction).
THERAPY: Treatment goals are providing supportive care to help the body fight infection, and relief of symptoms. Reorientation and emotional support for confused or delusional people may be helpful. Medications may include:

Antivirals, such as acyclovir (Zovirax) and foscarnet (Foscavir), for the treatment of herpes or other serious viral infections;
Antibiotics, if the infection is caused by some bacteria;
Anti-epilepsy drugs (such as phenytoin), to prevent convulsions;
Steroids (such as dexamethasone), to reduce the swelling of the brain (in rare cases);
Sedatives, for the treatment of restlessness or irritability;
Acetaminophen, for fever and headache
If brain function is severely affected, interventions such as physical therapy and speech therapy may be needed after the disease is under control.

PROGNOSIS: The result varies. Some cases are mild and of short duration, and the person heals completely. Other cases are serious, durable or permanent, and in some cases death is possible. The acute phase usually lasts for 1-2 weeks. Fever and other symptoms disappear progressively or suddenly. Some people may take several months to recover completely. Possible complications can be permanent brain damage, but also problems with hearing, memory, muscle, sensory, vocal and vision.

Contact a doctor if you have sudden fever or other symptoms of encephalitis.

PREVENTION: Keeping the mosquito under control (the mosquito bite can transmit some viruses) can reduce the chance of some infections that can lead to encephalitis. It can be done by applying anti-repellent repellents and using long clothing, if possible, to avoid contact. Vaccinate animals to prevent encephalitis caused by the rabies virus. Human vaccinations are available and include:

A vaccination to prevent viral encephalitis that often affects people living in dormitories or in the military;
Measles;
Shingles.
Sources: [Bleck TP. Viral arthropods affect the central nervous system. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicina. 23a ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders, 2007; Modlin JF. Infections from enterovirus. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicina. 23a ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders, 2007; http://health.nytimes.com/health/; Nath A. Berger jr. Acute viral encephalitis. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicina. 23a ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders, 2007; Whitley RJ. Herpes simplex virus infections. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicina. 23a ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders, 2007]

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Hepatitis is autoimmune

Autoimmune hepatitis is liver inflammation that occurs when immune cells by mistake attack normal cells in the liver instead of the invading invaders.

Causes: This disease is associated with other autoimmune diseases, including:

Hemolytic anemia;
Glomerulonephritis proliferative;
thyroiditis;
Type 1 diabetes;
Ulcerative colitis.
Autoimmune hepatitis sometimes occurs in relatives of people with autoimmune diseases, suggesting there is a genetic cause. This disease is more common in girls and women.

SYMPTOMS: The most common are:

Abdominal distension;
Urine scure;
Fatigue;
Generalized pruritus;
General malaise or discomfort;
Loss of appetite;
Nausea and vomit;
Light or clay colored;
Amenorrhea.
DIAGNOSIS: To diagnose the disease, you will be subjected to:

Abnormal liver function tests;
Hepatic biopsy showing chronic hepatitis;
Analysis of anti-microsomal antibodies in the liver and kidneys;
Analysis of anti-mitochondrial antibodies;
Settling speed;
Serum IgG.
THERAPY: Prednisone or other corticosteroid medications help reduce inflammation. Azathioprine and mercaptopurine are used to cure other autoimmune diseases. They have also been shown to help patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Some patients may receive a liver transplant.
PROGNOSIS: The result varies. Corticosteroid therapy can slow the progression of the disease. However, autoimmune hepatitis may worsen in cirrhosis and requires a liver transplant. Possible complications may be:

Cirrhosis;
Steroid and other drugs complications;
HCC;
Infection of liver cells.
Contact a doctor if you notice the appearance of autoimmune hepatitis symptoms.

PREVENTION: Autoimmune hepatitis is usually not preventable. Awareness of risk factors can allow early detection and cure of the disease in time.

Sources: [Luxon BA. Diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune hepatitis. Gastroenterology Clinics. June 2008; http://health.nytimes.com/health/]

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Esophagitis

Esophagitis is a generic term for any inflammation, irritation, swelling of the esophagus, the tube that goes from the back of the mouth to the stomach.

Causes: Esophagitis is often caused by the return of acids in the stomach to the esophagus, a condition called gastroesophageal reflux. An autoimmune disorder called eosinophilic esophagitis also causes this condition. The following conditions increase the risk of contracting esophagitis:

Excessive vomiting;
Medicines such as aspirin, ibuprofen, potassium, alendronate, tetracycline, and doxycycline;
Vitamin C Supplements;
Surgery or chest radiations.
People with weakened immune system due to HIV and certain drugs (such as corticosteroids) may develop infections leading to esophagitis. The infection can be due to fungus, herpes virus or cytomegalovirus.

SYMPTOMS: The infection may cause irritation of inflammatory tissues or it may also take the form of ulcers. Symptoms may include:

Difficulty swallowing;
Painful swallowing;
Stomach burns (acid reflux);
Oral lesions (herpes).
DIAGNOSIS: Your doctor may perform the following tests:

Endoscopy;
X-ray with barium;
Biopsy.
THERAPY: Treatment depends on the specific cause. Drugs can be prescribed to reduce acidity. Infections will require antibiotics.

PROGNOSIS: The disorders that cause esophagitis usually respond well to the treatment. Possible complications may be, if the disease is not cured, severe discomfort, difficulty swallowing up (causing malnutrition or dehydration), and any scars in the esophagus. These scars may lead to an esophagus stenosis, ie foods or medications may not be able to pass through the stomach. A condition called Barrett's esophagus may develop after years of gastroesophageal reflux. Rarely, Barrett's esophagus can lead to esophagus cancer.

Sources: [Maish M. esophagus. In: Townsend CM, RD Beauchamp, BM Evers, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Book of Surgery. 18a ed. St Louis, MO: WB Saunders; 2008; http://health.nytimes.com/health; Orlando R. Diseases of the esophagus. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicina. 23a ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007]


Contact your doctor for more information. The information provided on (what the health) is of a general nature and for purely disclosure purposes can in no way replace the advice of a physician (or a legally qualified person) or, in specific cases, of other operators health.

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