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Dental treatment - sore throat, stomach pain, headache, head in new ways and useful

Headache, Sore throat and Upset stomach: Common

Ear ache, Headache and Sore throat: Common Related

Having toothache, ear pain, sinus, headache and sor

What are OTC medications for sore throat, headache

Toothache Causes, Symptoms, Treatment - Toothache

Toothaches: Causes, Treatments, and Prevention - Health 


Toothache

Toothache is the pain that occurs to one or more teeth or around them. A toothache is generally the result of dental caries or sometimes an infection. Caries are often caused by poor mouth hygiene, although the tendency to have caries is partly hereditary. Sometimes, the pain that feels in the tooth is actually due to pain in other parts of the body. This happens when the pain radiates. For example, ear damage can cause pain in the teeth.

CAUSES: The most common are:

Tooth abscess;
Earache;
Jaws or mouth injuries;
Heart attack;
Sinusitis;
Caries.
DIAGNOSIS: The dentist will examine the mouth. Physical examination can include examining teeth, gums, tongue, throat, ears, nose and neck. Dental X-rays may be needed. The dentist may recommend other tests, depending on the suspected cause. The dentist will ask questions about your medical history and symptoms, as well as about the use of medications, other recent illnesses, or the regularity of dental visits.

THERAPY: Analgesics can be used while waiting to see a dentist. For the toothache caused by an abscess, the dentist can recommend antibiotic therapy and other treatments. To prevent caries just have good oral hygiene. Low-sugar diet is recommended with regular brushing with fluoride toothpaste and regular professional cleaning. Contact a doctor if:

It has a serious toothache;
Toothache lasts longer than a day or two;
You also have fever, earache, or pain when you open your mouth.
Treatment may involve fillings, teeth removal, or the installation of dental devices. If there is fever or swelling of the jaw, an antibiotic is usually prescribed.

Source: [http://health.nytimes.com/health/]
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Headache, Sore throat and Upset stomach: Common

Ear ache, Headache and Sore throat: Common Related

Having toothache, ear pain, sinus, headache and sor

What are OTC medications for sore throat, headache
Toothache Causes, Symptoms, Treatment - Toothache
Toothaches: Causes, Treatments, and Prevention - Health 


Sore throat

Sore throat is one of the most common disorders in men and women. There is no real throat disease, but more often this is just a symptom of some other disease or condition. It may accompany other common symptoms such as headache, swelling, coughing and rancidness.

Causes: Sore throat can be caused by diseases, viral or bacterial infections, irritations (eg from smoking), airborne imbalances, to more serious causes like tumors. Very often the sore throat is the first symptom, or one of the first, of a viral disease because viruses and bacteria, entering from mouth and nose, have as their first point to "attack" just the throat. When this appears, it means that other symptoms will soon follow.

SYMPTOMS: In general, sore throat is the first symptom of cooling. The feelings that you experience are manifold, and can be:

Burning;
tickling;
Ache;
Irritation;
Feeling that there is a foreign body in the affected part;
Reddened tonsils;
Difficulty of swallowing;
Difficulty in speaking;
Lowering of voice;
Unpleasant breath;
Widespread malaise.
A few more rare symptoms are:

Growth of plaques;
Increasing body temperature;
Neck pain.
DIAGNOSIS: There is no need for medical intervention to diagnose a sore throat, just feel pain. Control is done to understand what caused it, what any underlying illness there is, and what to do to get it passed. Very often the doctor just needs to look at the throat if it has some abnormalities, or at best pick up a sample of saliva to be analyzed. Questions may also be posed to the patient who has no other symptoms or habits that may affect exposure to chemicals such as smoke, pollution, or too dry air.

THERAPY: Therapy depends on the cause. It can go from the use of a simple humidifier to the radiators if the sore throat is caused by dry air, resting in the heat, avoiding temperature fluctuations, if it is a simple cooling, to so-called "remedies of Grandmother ", that is:

Intake hot drinks based on chamomile, thyme, honey, sage and other healing herbs;
Rinse your mouth with gargle several times a day using a mouthwash or a solution of water and salt (one teaspoon of salt in a glass of water);
Eat pasty or liquid foods;
Make steam inhalations;
Not smoking;
Do not drink alcoholic beverages;
Do not exchange cutlery, napkins or towels with other people to avoid spreading the virus.
There are also sprays and candies, for sale in pharmacy and herbal medicine, which relieve the pain. However, antibiotics (in case of bacterial infection) or medications such as antiseptics and painkillers (based on ibuprofen or paracetamol) may be given to relieve pain, such as tablets to be sucked on by Lysopaine and Mebucaine, or to Gargarism of Hextril, Collublache. If it is other types of illness you can use other specific drugs, or surgery in the event of a tumor. Do not take any medicines without first consulting your doctor.

PROGNOSIS: If it is a slight form of sore throat, which does not affect other diseases, it can go within a few days, a maximum of one week. If it is a symptom of a more serious illness, recovery times are long depending on the condition.

Contact a doctor when;

The sore throat worsens and does not pass in a few days;
There is fever and tonsils appear red and bloated;
There is a skin rash on any part of the body or an enlarged lymph node is observed;
There is a thick nasal discharge or strong headache;
The sputum is yellowish-greenish or stained with blood;
A child has a sore throat so intense that he has great difficulty breathing or swallowing saliva.
PREVENTION: Some useful tips that can be followed at home are:

Drink a lot (not alcoholic);
Eating liquid food;
Suck candy for the throat;
Avoid foods that are too acidic or salty;
Making gargarism;
Protect yourself from cold with appropriate clothing, especially in the neck area;
Avoid striving for vocal cords;
Avoid contact with flames;
Avoid or quit smoking.
Sources: [en.heilkraeuter.net; www.creafarma.ch; www.saninforma.it; www.lasaluteinpillole.it]
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Headache, Sore throat and Upset stomach: Common

Ear ache, Headache and Sore throat: Common Related

Having toothache, ear pain, sinus, headache and sor

What are OTC medications for sore throat, headache
Toothache Causes, Symptoms, Treatment - Toothache

Toothaches: Causes, Treatments, and Prevention - Health 

Stomach ache

Belly pain, or abdominal pain is the pain that feels everywhere between the chest and the groin. This is often referred to as the belly or stomach area. There are many abdominal organs, so pain can come from any of them, including:

Digestion organs (end of esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, gallbladder and pancreas);
The aorta (a large blood vessel that runs straight down in the belly);
The appendix (a right organ in the lower abdomen);
The kidneys (two organs located inside the deep abdominal cavity);
The spleen (an organ involved in the control of infections).
However, pain may begin somewhere else, such as the chest or the pelvic area. You may also have a generalized infection, such as flu or sore throat, that affects many parts of the body. The intensity of pain does not always reflect the severity of the condition. A severe abdominal pain may come from mild conditions such as gas or cramping for viral gastroenteritis. On the other hand, a relatively mild pain can present diseases such as colon cancer or a start of appendicitis.

CAUSES: Many different conditions can cause abdominal pain. In many cases you can simply wait and cure with home remedies by calling your doctor at a later time only if the symptoms persist. Causes can be:

Appendicitis;
Intestinal occlusion;
cholecystitis;
Chronic constipation;
Abdominal aortic aneurysm;
Diverticulitis;
Infection;
Excess gas;
Food allergy;
Food poisoning;
Gastroesophageal reflux;
Indigestion or burning of the stomach;
Hernia;
Infectious mononucleosis;
Intestinal chronic inflammatory disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis);
intussusception;
Irritable colon syndrome;
Kidney stones;
Lactose intolerance;
Pancreatitis;
Parasitic infections;
Vertebral fracture;
Ulcer;
Urinary tract infections;
Viral gastroenteritis.
When an organ fades (as in the appendix) there are abrupt abruptness or fluid leakage, which not only provokes angry pain but will lead to abdominal stiffness and probably fever. This occurs during peritonitis (infection and inflammation of the abdominal cavity lining).

In infants a prolonged and inexplicable cry may be caused by abdominal pains that may end with the expulsion of gas or stool. Colic is often worse in the evening. Swinging the baby can bring some relief. Abdominal pain that occurs during the menstrual cycle may be due to menstrual cramps or may indicate a problem in a reproductive organ. This includes certain conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, ovarian cancer, or pelvic inflammatory disease, usually sexually transmitted.

Abdominal pain can actually be caused by an organ in the chest, such as the lungs (eg, pneumonia) or the heart (such as a heart attack). Or, it can be from a live muscle. Colon cancer and other serious gastrointestinal tract can not cause pain. Other more unusual causes include an emotional disorder that is reflected in physical discomfort.

DIAGNOSIS: From the background and the physical examination, the doctor will try to determine the cause of the pain. Knowing the pain position and the symptoms will help diagnose. During physical examination, your doctor will try to locate the pain and see if it has spread to another area. He will check if there is an inflammation of the peritoneum, in which case there is a need for surgery. Your doctor may ask questions about pain, medication, and general health conditions. Diagnostic tests that can be performed include:

Matt clisma;
Magnetic resonance imaging;
Examination of blood, urine and feces;
Gastrointestinal endoscopy;
Belly ultrasound;
Belly Rays-X.
THERAPY: For mild pain:

Sip water or other fluids;
Avoid solid food for the first few hours. If there is vomiting, wait 6 hours. So, eat small amounts of light foods such as rice, apple juice or crackers;
If the pain is high in the abdomen and occurs after meals, antacids can provide relief, especially if you feel stomach burn or indigestion. Avoid citrus fruits, high fat, fried or fatty foods, tomato products, caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated drinks. You can also try with H2 blockers (Tagamet, Pepcid, or Zantac). If any of these medicines worsens the pain, call your doctor immediately;
Avoid aspirin, ibuprofen or other anti-inflammatory drugs, and narcotics, unless your doctor prescribes them. If you know that the pain is not related to the liver, you can try it with 
acetaminophen (Tylenol).
And: You are not able to defecate, especially if you also have vomiting; You vomit blood or blood in your stools (or are dark brown or black tar); Pain goes through chest, neck or shoulder; A sudden and strong abdominal pain, pain causes nausea, the belly is rigid, hard and swollen, the discomfort lasts for a week or longer, swelling persists for more than 2 days, it has a burning sensation when urinating or Has frequent diarrhea; diarrhea lasts for more than 5 days, or a child has diarrhea for more than 2 days or vomiting for more than 12 hours; call immediately if a child is less than 3 months; fever exceeds 38 degrees Adults and 39 for children; Pain develops during pregnancy; It has a prolonged lack of appetite; There is an unexplainable weight loss. PREVENTION: To prevent many types of abdominal pain: Eat small frequent meals; Make sure that the meals are well balanced and high in fiber. Eat a lot of fruits and vegetables; Limit the foods that produce gas; Drink plenty of water every day; Do regular exercise. For Preventing Symptoms of Stomach Burns or Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Stop Smoking; Lose Weight If Needed; Finish eating at least 2 hours before going to bed; After eating, stand upright for at least 30 minutes; Raise your head when you are in bed. Facts: [American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Chronic Abdominal Pain. Pediatrics 2005; Ohge H. Levitt MD. Intestinal gas. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Sleisenger MH, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran of the liver and gastrointestinal tract. 8a ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders, 2006; http://health.nytimes.com/health/; CM Townsend, RD Beauchamp, BM Evers, KL Mattox. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery, 17th ed. St. Louis, MO: WB Saunders, 2004; Abdominal pain. In: Marx J. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 6a ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 2006]
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Headache (Headache)

Headache is the pain or feeling of discomfort in the head, scalp, or neck. Most people with headache feel better by simply making changes in lifestyle, learning ways to relax, and sometimes taking medication.

CAUSES: The most common are caused by the contraction of the muscles of the shoulders, neck, scalp, and jaw. These are referred to as headache by tension. They are often related to stress, depression or anxiety. Other causes are lack of sleep, meals, and the use of alcohol or drugs. It can be caused by chocolate, cheese, and monosodium glutamate (MSG). People who drink a lot of caffeine can usually have headaches when they do not get their usual daily dose.

Other common causes include:

Keep your head in a certain position for a long time, such as in front of a computer, microscope, etc .;
Too much physical stress;
Tighten or grind your teeth.
The tension headache tends to involve both sides of the head. It often starts from the back of the head and spreads forward. Pain can give you the feeling of being squeezed, as if you apply a narrow band around your head. Shoulders, neck or jaw may hurt. The pain is generally persistent, but it is difficult to get worse. Migraine occurs with other symptoms such as visual disorder or nausea. Pain can be described as pulsation, heaviness or pressure. Worse usually as you try to move. Other types of headaches are:

Bunch, strong headache that tends to occur several times a day for months and then go away suddenly and for a long time;
Venous headache, a pain in the front of the head and face due to inflammation in the air passage behind cheeks, nose and eyes. Pain tends to be worse when you bend forward and when you wake up in the morning.
Headaches may occur if you have colds, flu, fever, or premenstrual syndrome. If the headache occurs for the first time after 50 years, you may find it in a condition called temporal arteritis. The symptoms of this condition include visual disorder and chewing aggravated pain. There is a risk of becoming blind, so it must be taken care of by your doctor immediately.

Rare causes of headache include:

Brain aneurysm (a weakening of the wall of a blood vessel that can break and bleed the brain);
Brain tumor;
Stroke;
Brain Infection such as Meningitis or Encephalitis.
DIAGNOSIS: Your doctor will investigate the patient's medical history and perform an examination of the head, eyes, ears, nose, throat, neck, and nervous system. Diagnosis is usually based on the history of the symptoms. A "headache diary" can be useful. The physician may ask questions about the location of pain, intensity and the various modes. Diagnostic tests that can be performed are as follows:

TAC;
Magnetic resonance at the head;
Radius X to the respiratory tract;
Biopsy in temporal artery;
Lumbar puncture.
If migraine is diagnosed, drugs containing Ergot may be prescribed. The temporal arteritis must be treated with steroids to help prevent blindness.

THERAPY: Keep a headache diary to help locate the source or limit its symptoms. It includes when a headache occurs, write down the date and time it started, including what you've eaten in the last 24 hours, how much time you slept the previous night, what you are doing and thinking Before the pain begins, any kind of stress, how much of a headache, and what has been done to relieve it. After that it can help change your environment and habits in order to avoid future headaches. A headache can be solved with rest with your eyes closed and your head rested. Relaxation techniques can help like a massage or heat applied to the back of the neck.

PHARMACY: You can try acetaminophen, aspirin or ibuprofen, not for children because of the risk of Reye's syndrome. The prescription drugs used for migraine include ergotamine, dihydroergotamine, caffeine ergotamine (Cafergot), isometheptene (Midrin), and triptans such as sumatriptan (Imitrex), rizatriptan (Maxalt), eletriptan (Relpax), almotriptan (Axert), zolmitriptan (Zomig). Sometimes medications to relieve nausea and vomiting are helpful for other symptoms of migraine.

Your doctor may prescribe medication to prevent headaches before the symptoms occur. Examples of these include:

Antidepressants such as nortriptyline (Pamelor), amitriptyline (Elavil), fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem), sertraline (Zoloft), or paroxetine (Paxil) for tension or migraine;
Beta-blockers, such as frequent propranolol (Inderal);
Verapamil for frequent attacks; Anti-epileptic drugs such as topiramate (Topamax). If you use pain medication for more than 2 days a week, your headache may be caused by misuse or improper use of the medication. All types of pain pills such as muscle relaxants, some decongestants, and caffeine can cause headaches. PRECAUTION: Contact your doctor or the 113 if: You suffer from the first life-threatening life that interferes with your daily activity; Head is suddenly and is explosive or violent; you could describe your headaches as "the worst ever had", even if you often suffer from it; headaches are associated with incomprehensible speech, obscene vision, or problems moving on Arms or legs, loss of balance, confusion or memory loss, is progressively worsening over 24 hours, accompanied by fever, twitch, nausea and vomiting, occurs after a cranial trauma, it is severely localized on An eye with redness of the same; You are over the age of 50 and you have headaches for the first time, especially with visual impairment and pain in chewing; Do not stop until it s I go to bed, it lasts more than a few days, It's worse in the morning, It changes in time in ways or intensity, It often has headaches and causes can not be understood.The following healthy habits can reduce stress and reduce The possibility of headaches: adequate sleep; to follow a healthy diet; regular exercise; stretching to the neck and upper body, especially if your work involves hours of fixed posture; learning a proper posture; quitting smoking; learning to Relax using meditation, deep breathing, yoga, or other techniques; wear correct eyeglasses if needed. Sources: [http://health.nytimes.com/health; Lipton RB, Bigal ME, Steiner TJ, Silberstein SD, Olesen J. Classification of primary headaches. Neurology. 10 August 2004; Silberstein SD, young WB. Headache and facial pain. In: Goetz, CG. Clinical Neurology textbook. 3ND ed. St Louis, MO: WB Saunders, 2007; Wilson JF. In the clinic. Migraine.
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Autoimmune disease

An autoimmune disease is a condition that occurs when the immune system attacks erroneously and destroys healthy body tissues. There are more than 80 different types of autoimmune diseases.

Causes: Normally, the white blood cell body immune system protects the body from harmful substances called antigens (bacteria, viruses, toxins, cancer cells, foreign blood or tissues from another person). The immune system produces antibodies that destroy these harmful substances.

But in patients with autoimmune disease, the immune system can not distinguish the difference between healthy body tissues and antigens. The result is an immune response that destroys normal body tissues. The answer is a hypersensitivity reaction similar to allergies, where the immune system reacts to a substance that it normally ignores. In allergies, the immune system reacts to an external substance that would normally be harmless. What makes the immune system not distinguish between healthy tissues and antigens is unknown. A theory argues that various microorganisms and drugs can cause some of these changes, particularly in people who are genetically prone to autoimmune diseases. An autoimmune disease can lead to:

Destruction of one or more types of body tissue;
Abnormal growth of an organ;
Variations of organ function.
An autoimmune disease may affect one or more types of organ or tissue. The organs and tissues commonly affected by autoimmune diseases include:

Red blood cells;
Blood vessels;
Connective fabrics;
Endocrine glands such as thyroid or pancreas;
Muscles;
Joints;
Skin.
A person may have more than one autoimmune disorder at the same time. Some examples are:

Hashimoto's thyroiditis;
Pernicious anemia;
Addison's disease;
Type I diabetes;
Rheumatoid arthritis;
Systemic lupus erythematosus;
Dermatomyositis;
Sjogren's syndrome;
Lupus erythematosus;
Multiple sclerosis;
Myasthenia;
Reactive arthritis;
Grave's Disease;
Celiac disease.
SYMPTOMS: The symptoms of an autoimmune disease vary greatly and depend on the specific illness. A group of unspecific symptoms often accompany autoimmune diseases, and may include: Vertigo;
Fatigue;
General moody;
Low fever.
DIAGNOSIS: The physician performs a physical examination. The particular symptoms are very different and depend on the specific illness. Tests that can be made to diagnose an autoimmune disease may include:

Erythrocyte velocity (VES);
C-Reactive Protein (CRP).
THERAPY: Treatment goals are to reduce the symptoms and control the autoimmune process, while maintaining the body's ability to fight the disease. Therapies are very different and depend on the specific illness and symptoms. Some patients may require supplements to replenish a hormone or vitamin whose body is deficient, such as thyroid supplements or insulin injections. If autoimmune disorder affects the blood, the person may need blood transfusions.

Measures to help the movement or other functions may be needed for autoimmune diseases affecting the bones, joints, or muscles. Medicines are often prescribed to control or reduce the immune system response. Such drugs may include corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclophosphamide and azathioprine.

PROGNOSIS: The result depends on the specific illness. Most are chronic, but many can be controlled with the treatment. Symptoms of autoimmune disorders can go and come suddenly, and also develop serious symptoms.

Possible complications depend on the specific illness. The side effects of drugs used to suppress the immune system can be serious.

PREVENTION: There is no known method of prevention for autoimmune diseases.

Source: [http://health.nytimes.com/health/]
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Sleeping sickness

Sleep sickness is an infection caused by organisms carried by some flies that involves a swelling of the brain.

Causes: Sleep sickness is caused by two organisms, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosomoa brucei gambiense. The most serious form of the disease is caused by rhodesiense. Tse-tse flies carry the infection. When an infected fly bites, it causes pain and a red swelling. The infection spreads through the blood, causing episodes of fever, headache, sweating and swelling of the lymph nodes. When the infection spreads to the central nervous system, it causes typical symptoms of sleep disorder. When it reaches the brain, behavioral changes occur such as fear, mood swings, followed by headaches, fever and weakness. Heart inflammation (myocarditis) may also develop. Risk factors include living in parts of Africa where disease is widespread and bitten by tse-tse flies. The disease is extremely rare in the West, and it only happens to travelers who have visited or lived in those endemic areas.

SYMPTOMS: Infections lead to drowsiness during the day, but to night insomnia. Sleep becomes uncontrollable when the disease worsens, and eventually leads to coma. The general symptoms include:

Anxiety;
Drowsiness;
Temperature;
Headache;
Insomnia at night;
Mood changes;
Sweating;
Lymph nodes throughout the body;
Swelling, redness and pain in the nodules at the site of the bite;
Want uncontrollable to sleep.
DIAGNOSIS: Physical examination may show signs of meningoencephalitis (brain inflammation and its covering, meninges). The examinations to be carried out are as follows: Albumin levels;
Stroke of blood;
Cerebrospinal fluid test;
Complete CBM (CBM);
Globulin levels;
Lymph node aspiration.
Most antibody and antigen tests are not very useful because they can not distinguish between ongoing and previous infections. Specific levels of IgM (immunoglobulin M) in the cerebrospinal fluid may be useful.

THERAPY: The drugs used to cure this disorder are:

Eflornitine (only for gambience);
Melarsoprolo;
pentamidine;
Suramin (Antrypol).
PROGNOSIS: Without treatment, death may occur within 6 months due to heart failure or rhodesian infections. Gambience infection causes the classic "sleep disorder" to worsen more rapidly, often in a few weeks. Both diseases must be treated immediately. Possible complications are related to injuries due to falling asleep during driving or while doing other activities, and from progressive damage to the nervous system.

Contact a doctor if you have the symptoms of this disorder. It is important to start treatment as soon as possible.

PREVENTION: Pentamidine injections may prevent stenosis, but not rhodesia. Insect control measures can help prevent spread in high risk areas.
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Graves disease

Graves disease, or Graves' disease, is an autoimmune disease leading to the hyperactivity of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism).

Causes: The thyroid is an important organ of the endocrine system. It is located at the front of the neck, just below the larynx. This gland releases thyroid hormone (T4) and trijodiotironin (T3), which control the body's metabolism. Metabolic control is crucial to regulating mood, weight, and mental and physical energy levels.

If the body produces too much thyroid hormone, the condition is called hyperthyroidism. Graves's disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It is caused by an abnormal immune response that causes excessive production of thyroid hormones. Disease is more common in women over the age of 20. However, the disorder can occur at any age and can also affect men.

SYMPTOMS: The most common are:

Anxiety;
Breast enlargement in men;
Difficulty of concentration;
Double view;
Eyes that protrude (esoftalmo);
Irritation and tear of eyes;
Fatigue;
Frequent defecation;
Goiter;
Intolerance to heat;
Increased appetite;
Increased sweating;
Insomnia;
Menstrual irregularities in women;
Muscle Weakness;
Nervousness;
Rapid or irregular heart beat (palpitations or arrhythmia);
Restlessness and sleep disturbances;
Lack of breath under stress;
Tremor;
Weight loss (rare).
DIAGNOSIS: Physical examination shows an increase in heart rate. Neck examination can show that the thyroid gland is enlarged (goiter). Other tests are:

Blood tests to measure the levels of TSH, T3 and T4 free;
Taking radioactive iodine.
This illness may also affect the results of the following tests:

TAC or orbital ultrasound;
Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI);
Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO);
Anti-TSH receptor antibodies.
THERAPY: The purpose of the treatment is to control the hyperactivity of the thyroid gland. Beta-blockers such as propranolol are often used to treat the symptoms of tachycardia, sweating and anxiety until hyperthyroidism is under control. Hyperthyroidism is treated with one or more of the following:

Anti-thyroid drugs;
Radioactive iodine;
Surgery.
If you do radiation and surgery, you need to take thyroid hormones replacement for the rest of your life because these treatments destroy or remove the gland. Some of the eye problems associated with Graves's disease usually improve when hyperthyroidism is treated with drugs, radiation or surgery. Radioactive iodine can sometimes cause eye problems, which worsen in people who smoke even after hyperthyroidism is cured.

Sometimes prednisone (a steroid drug suppressing the immune system) is needed to reduce eye irritation and swelling. You may need to wrap your eyes at night to avoid dryness. Sunglasses and eye drops can reduce eye irritation. Rarely, surgery or radiotherapy (other than radioactive iodine) may be necessary to bring back normal eyes.

PROGNOSIS: Graves's disease often responds well to the treatment. However, thyroid surgery or radioactive iodine usually cause hypothyroidism. Without the right dose of hormone replacement therapy, hypothyroidism can lead to:

Depression;
Mental and physical illness;
Weight gain.
Anti-thyroid drugs may also have serious side effects. Possible complications may be:

Surgery complications such as hoarseness, nerve damage, low calcium levels, damage to the parathyroid glands or neck scars;
Eye problems (called esoftalmic or ophthalmopathy of Graves);
Heart complications such as rapid heart rate, congestive heart failure (especially in the elderly) or atrial fibrillation;
Thyroid Crisis (thyrotoxic storm), a severe worsening of the symptoms of thyroid gland hyperactivity;
Increased risk of osteoporosis if hyperthyroidism has been present for a long time;
Complications related to hormone replacement therapy if too little hormone is given, fatigue, weight gain, high cholesterol, depression, physical slowness and other symptoms of hypothyroidism; Or if too much hormone is given, the symptoms will come back.
Contact a doctor if you have symptoms of Graves's disease or if the symptoms get worse (or do not improve) with the treatment. Get ready for symptoms of hypothyroidism associated with:

Decreasing conscience;
Temperature;
Rapid and irregular heart beat.
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Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (lasting for a lifetime). Some parts of the digestive system swell and undergo deep, decubitus wounds called ulcers. The disease usually occurs in the last part of the small intestine and in the first part of the large intestine but can be developed in any part of the digestive system, from mouth to anus.

CAUSES: The main causes are still unknown. One of them may be an abnormal immune response to normal bacteria in the intestine. There is a probability that other types of bacteria and viruses can cause the disease. One of the hypotheses is that it is a hereditary illness. Data confirm that there are higher chances of contracting the disease if a close relative has been infected earlier. Smoking, infections, stress and hormonal changes are not among the causes, but can increase the risk of getting sick.

SYMPTOMS: The main symptoms of Crohn's disease are:

Pain in the belly;
Diarrhea (sometimes with blood). Some people may have diarrhea 10 to 20 times a day;
Inadvertent weight loss;
Ulcers at the mouth;
Intestinal Blocks;
Anal Losses;
Fistula in the organs.
You may only have mild symptoms that last for short or long periods of time, or may even have no symptoms. The symptoms are seldom severe.

DIAGNOSIS: The doctor begins with an anamnesis (questions about the patient's symptoms and medical history), then undergo physical examination. You do X-rays and lab tests to find out if you have Crohn's disease. These tests include:

X-ray to the small intestine or colon barium;
Colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy;
Biopsy of a tissue to exclude other diseases such as cancer;
Feces analysis.
THERAPY: Therapy depends on the type and severity of symptoms. The most common is the use of medicines. Mild symptoms of Crohn's disease can be treated with the use of medications to cure from diarrhea, which should be assigned directly by the physician to avoid unwanted effects. Other medications help control inflammation in the intestine and avoid the onset of other symptoms. These drugs in addition to healing the patient also help the damaged tissue to reform itself. In serious cases, endovine medicines are used, up to surgical intervention. Crohn's disease can often reappear after surgery. Alternative methods of non-scientific safety, but some that have been useful, are massages, supplements such as vitamins D and B12 and aromatic herbs such as aloe and ginseng. Also important is the support of family members, especially for a psychological factor.

PREVENTION: There are few caution to be taken to help the patient feel better:

Eliminate almost all sugars;
Exercise;
Eat healthy;
Not smoking.
Crohn's disease makes it very difficult for the body to absorb nutrients from food. A slow meal that focuses on a high-calorie, high protein content can help you get the nutrients you need. Even better if you have regular meals, plus two or three snacks a day.

Source: [http://www.webmd.com]
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myocarditis

La miocardite è l’infiammazione del muscolo cardiaco.

CAUSE: Si tratta di un raro disordine che di solito è causato da virus, batteri o infezioni fungine che raggiungono il cuore. Le infezioni virali possono essere:

Coxsackie;
Citomegalovirus;
Epatite C;
Herpes;
HIV;
Parvovirus.
Infezioni batteriche:

Clamidia;
Micoplasma;
Streptococco;
Treponema.
Infezioni fungine:

Aspergillus;
Candida;
Coccidioide;
Criptococco;
Istoplasma;
Schistosomiasi.
Quando si ha un’infezione, il sistema immunitario produce particolari cellule che rilasciano sostanze chimiche per la lotta contro la malattia. Se l’infezione colpisce il cuore, la lotta contro la malattia delle cellule finisce sin dentro l’organo. Tuttavia, le sostanze chimiche prodotte da una risposta immunitaria possono danneggiare il muscolo cardiaco. Di conseguenza, il cuore può diventare spesso, gonfio e debole. Questo porta a sintomi di insufficienza cardiaca. Altre cause di miocardite possono comprendere:

Reazioni allergiche ad alcuni farmaci o tossine (alcool, cocaina, alcuni farmaci chemioterapici, metalli pesanti e catecolamine);
Esposizione a determinate sostanze chimiche;
Alcune malattie che causano infiammazione in tutto il corpo (artrite reumatoide, sarcoidosi).
SINTOMI: Può anche non apparire alcun sintomo. In caso qualche sintomo appaia, esso potrà essere:

Anomalie cardiache;
Dolore toracico che può somigliare ad un attacco di cuore;
Affaticamento;
Febbre e altri segni di infezione tra cui mal di testa, dolori muscolari, mal di gola, diarrea, eruzioni cutanee;
Dolore o gonfiore alle articolazioni;
Gonfiore delle gambe;
Mancanza di respiro.
Altri sintomi che possono verificarsi con questa malattia possono essere:

Svenimento, spesso legato al ritmo cardiaco irregolare;
Bassa diuresi.
DIAGNOSI: Un esame fisico può rivelare i seguenti problemi:

Anomalie cardiache come mormorii o suoni anormali;
Fluidi nei polmoni;
Rapido battito cardiaco (tachicardia);
Gonfiore (edema) delle gambe.
I test utilizzati per la diagnosi di miocardite includono:

Esame del sangue per l’infezione;
Gli esami del sangue per la ricerca di anticorpi contro il cuore;
Raggi-X al petto;
Elettrocardiogramma;
Biopsia muscolare al cuore (endomiocardia);
Conta dei globuli rossi;
Ecografia del cuore (ecocardiogramma);
Conta dei globuli bianchi.
TERAPIA: Il trattamento è finalizzato alla causa del problema, e può comportare:

Antibiotici;
Farmaci anti-infiammatori per ridurre il gonfiore;
Diuretici per eliminare l’eccesso di acqua dal corpo;
Dieta a basso contenuto di sale;
Riduzione dell’attività.
Se il muscolo cardiaco è molto debole, il medico prescriverà i farmaci per trattare l’insufficienza cardiaca. Anomalie cardiache possono richiedere l’uso di altri farmaci, un pacemaker o un defibrillatore-cardiaco impiantabile. Se un coagulo di sangue si trova nel cuore, si potranno ricevere dei farmaci per fluidificare il sangue.

PROGNOSI: La guarigione dipende dalla causa del problema e dalla salute generale del paziente. Alcune persone possono guarire completamente, altri possono avere una permanente insufficienza cardiaca. Possibili complicazioni possono essere:

Cardiomiopatia;
Insufficienza cardiaca;
Pericardite.
Contattare un medico se si hanno i sintomi della miocardite, soprattutto dopo una recente infezione. Richiedere immediatamente assistenza medica se i sintomi sono gravi o sono aumentati il dolore toracico, la difficoltà di respirazione o il gonfiore.

PREVENZIONE: Curare tempestivamente le condizioni che causano la miocardite può ridurre il rischio.

Fonti: [Liu PP, Schultheiss HP. Miocardite. In: Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP. Libby: Braunwald’s Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 8a ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier, 2007; http://health.nytimes.com/health/]
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Huntington's disease

Huntington's disease is an inherited disease where nerve cells in the brain are destroyed or degenerate.

CAUSE: American physician George Huntington described disease for the first time in 1872. Condition is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 4. The defect causes, in part of the DNA, called a repetitive trunucleotide sequence CAG, which is replicated many times More than normal. Normally, this section of DNA is repeated from 10 to 35 times. But in people with Huntington's disease, it repeats from 36 to 120 times. Since the gene is transmitted from one generation to the next, the number of repetitions tends to be increasing. The greater the number of repetitions, the greater the likelihood of developing symptoms. There are two forms of Huntington's disease. The most common is the onset of an adult, in which symptoms develop towards the middle of the 30's and 40's. Early onset is less common and begins during childhood or adolescence. Symptoms may resemble those of Parkinson's disease with rigidity, slow motion and tremor. If one of the parents has the disease, you have a 50% probability of passing the injected gene. If you do not receive the gene from your parents, it is not possible for you to inherit it.

SYMPTOMS: The most common are:

Unusual and unusual movements such as moving the head to move your eyes, grimace, uncontrolled movements and lenses, unstable pace;
Behavioral changes;
Anti-social behaviors;
Hallucinations;
Irritability;
Restlessness;
Paranoia;
Psychosis;
Dementia that gets worse as a loss of memory or judgment;
Changes in speech mode;
Personality Changes;
Disorientation or confusion;
Anxiety, stress and tension;
Difficulty in swallowing;
Difficulty in speaking.
In Children:

Rigidity;
Slow motion;
Tremor.
DIAGNOSIS: Your doctor will have to undergo physical examination. It can notice signs of dementia and abnormal movements and reflections. Gait is often claudicating and wide. The way of speaking can be hesitant or poor. A TC scan of the head may show brain tissue loss, particularly deep in the brain. Other evidence that may show signs of Huntington's disease include:


Magnetic resonance at the head;
PET scan (isotopes) of the brain.
DNA marker studies may be available to determine if you have the disease gene.

THERAPY: There is no cure for Huntington's disease, and there is no known way to stop it from getting worse. The purpose of the treatment is to slow down the course of the disease and help the person in the simplest functions. Medications vary according to the symptoms. Blocking dopamine can help reduce abnormal behavior of the movements. Drugs such as amantadine tetrabenazine are used to try to control extra movements. There have been some tests that suggest that coenzyme Q10 can also help slow down the course of the disease. Depression and suicide are common among people with this condition. It is important for all those who take care of a person with Huntington to monitor and treat the symptoms. There is a progressive need for assistance and control, even 24 hours if needed.

PROBLEMS: Huntington's Disease causes a progressive disability. People with this disease usually die within 15-20 years. The cause of death is often infection or suicide. It is important to realize that the disease affects everyone in a different way. The number of CAG repetitions can determine the severity of the symptoms. People with few repetitions may have mild abnormal movements later in life and slow progression of the disease, while those with many reps may be severely affected at a young age. Any complications are:

Loss of ability to take care of yourself;
Loss of ability to interact;
Injuries to oneself or to others;
Increased risk of infection;
Depression;
Death.
PREVENTION: Genetic counseling is recommended if there is a family history of Huntington's disease. Experts also recommend genetic counseling for couples with a family history of this disease that can be transmitted to their children.

Source: [http://health.nytimes.com/health/; www.wikipedia.org]



 Contact your doctor for more information. The information provided on (what the health) is of ageneral nature and for purely disclosure purposes can in no way replace the advice of a physician (or a legally qualified person) or, in specific cases, of other operators health.




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