Leukemia is the term used to describf the blood cells. There are two main types of leukemia, acute and chronic, depending on whether tha nuey develop rapidly or more slowly. It is one of the most common tumor forms among adults and the most common among children worldwide. Men are most affected by women in acute form, while chronic affects more or less the same way.
Causes: Leukemia affects white blood cells, which are part of the body's immune system. Depending on the type of white blood cells affected, acute leukemia is called lymphoblastic (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Chronic leukemia is called chronic lymphocytic (LLC) or chronic myeloid (LMC). In acute leukemia, immature white blood cells accumulate in the body and can disrupt the function of many tissues and organs. In chronic cells, cells are abnormal and do not work as they should. The risk of developing acute leukemia has increased in the following cases:
Previous treatment against cancer;
Blood disorders affecting the bone marrow;
Exposure to chemicals (such as benzene):
Previous family cases.
SYMPTOMS: Often there are no symptoms and when symptoms begin to appear, they may be vague and not specific, similar to influenza. The most common symptoms include:
Generalized weakness and fatigue;
Frequent infections and fever;
Excessive bruising or bleeding;
Pain in the bones and joints;
Swelling of the lymph glands, liver and / or spleen;
THERAPY: Not all diagnoses of leukemia will require treatment immediately, and some patients do not require any treatment. However, for those who undertake them early, therapies are more effective. Acute leukemia therapy may include chemotherapy, steroids, radiotherapy, intensive treatments (including bone marrow or stem cell systems), and growth factors (substances that stimulate the bone marrow to build cells in the bloodstream). For chronic leukemia, instead of the aforementioned therapies, the biological one such as interferon alfa can also be taken. The most commonly used drug in leukemic therapy is methotrexate, and the antibiotic Adriamycin.
PROGNOSIS: The prognosis varies each time depending on the severity of the condition and the leukemia form involved. It is a disease that, when treated late or badly, and without a bone marrow transplant, the long lead to death, but with modern therapy techniques you can hope to live for at least 5 years.
Sources: [http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/; www.wikipedia.org]
Hair Capsule Leukemia
The scalp cells leukemia is a rare blood cancer. It affects cells B, a type of white blood cells (lymphocytes).
CAUSES: Capsule-derived leukemia is a rare disease caused by the abnormal growth of B cells. Cells may look "hairy" under the microscope because they have filamentous projections on their surface. The condition can lead to a low number of normal blood cells.
The cause of this disease is unknown. It affects men more often than women. The average age of onset is 55 years.
SYMPTOMS: The most common are:
Ease of bruising or bleeding;
Excessive sweating (especially at night);
Feeling full after having eaten only a small amount of food;
Recurrent infections and fevers;
Swelling of the lymph glands;
DIAGNOSIS: During a physical examination, your doctor may be able to feel a swelling in the spleen or liver. An abdominal CT scan can be done to confirm this swelling. A complete hemocromocytometer examination shows low levels of white and red blood cells and platelets. Blood tests and bone marrow biopsy are able to detect hair cells. Flow cytometry, or a test called TRAP, can confirm the diagnosis of cancer.
THERAPY: Treatment may not be necessary in the early stages of this disease. Some patients may need an occasional blood transfusion. If treatment is necessary because of very low blood count, a variety of chemotherapeutic drugs can be used. A drug called interferon is very much used. In most cases, chemotherapy can alleviate the symptoms of the disease for many years. When the signs and symptoms disappear, it is about remission. Interferon can relieve the symptoms, but is unlikely to lead to remission.
Spleen removal can improve blood count, but it is unlikely that it will cure the disease. Antibiotics can be used to treat infections. People with low blood count will receive growth factors and possibly transfusions.
PROGNOSIS: Recent chemotherapy treatments have greatly improved the survival of patients suffering from hairy leukemia. Most patients with haemorrhagic leukemia may expect to live 10 years or longer with the disease. Possible complications related to blood problems can be infections, fatigue, and excessive bleeding.
Contact a doctor if you bleed significantly, or if there are signs of infection such as persistent fever, cough or general illness.
PREVENTION: There is no known way to prevent this disease.
There is talk of leucopenia when there is a decreased concentration of white blood cells in the blood (less than 4000 / m). It may be accompanied by other more severe conditions such as monocytopenia and lymphocytopenia.
Causes: The following medical conditions are some of the possible causes of leukopenia. It is likely that there are other possible causes, but these are the most common:
Drugs (Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Adriamycin PFS, Adriamycin RDF, Doxil, Rubex, Carmustine and Cimetidine Interaction, Cyclophosphamide and Allopurinol interaction, Fluorouracil and Cimetidine interaction, Fluorouracil and Metronidazole interaction, Methotrexate and Aspirin interactions);
Bone marrow dysfunction;
SYMPTOMS: The symptoms you may experience concern issues such as:
Swelling in the spleen;
Difficulty of digestion;
Difficulty in blood clotting.
DIAGNOSIS: The physician must identify the triggering cause of leukopenia, as this isolated condition hardly creates problems and is very rare. Particular attention must be paid to the first pathways of infection, therefore a respiratory tract, the food tract, lungs, peritoneum, nails, and blood test. In the case of diarrhea, it is also good to perform stool control. It is also possible to perform a radiograph of facial sinuses, bone biopsy and aspirated bone marrow.
THERAPY: Cancer patients need cytotoxic chemotherapy. Depending on the type of cancer, the chemotherapy regime is used. Some of these medicines can be used:
Neupogen, a stimulant for granulocyte colonies;
Leukines, a stimulant for granulocyte-macrophage colonies.
Growth Colony stimulants can accelerate regeneration of blood cells following chemotherapy. The patient can self-administer melatonin, succinate tocopherol, and many other nutrients that have been shown to protect the immune function and improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy.
Physicians usually prescribe steroids or vitamins to stimulate the bone marrow that produce more neutrophils. In more extreme cases, the patient will be prescribed a cocktail of medications suited to the situation. Please consult your doctor before purchasing drugs for this purpose.
PROGNOSIS: Healing depends on the underlying cause. In many cases, like those of tumors, they may become chronic.
Sources: [www.wrongdiagnosis.com; library.thinkquest.org; www.lef.org; www.msd-italia.it]
The lichen planus is a disease where there is itching, swelling and flushing on the skin or mouth.
Causes: The exact cause of the lichen planus is unknown. However, it is probably related to an allergic or immune reaction.
The risks include:
Exposure to drugs, dyes and other chemicals (including gold, antibiotics, arsenic, iodine, chloroquine, quinacrine, quinide, phenothiazines and diuretics);
Diseases such as hepatitis C.
The lichen planus typically affects middle-aged adults. It is less common in children.
SYMPTOMS: The most common are:
Mild and painful mouth injuries (mild cases can not cause any discomfort), which lie on the sides of the tongue or inside the cheek, sometimes on the gums, which appear as a scarcely defined area of white-blue dots;
Injury that gradually increases the size of the affected area;
Injury or occasionally painful ulcers;
Skin lesions that are usually found on the internal pulse, legs, bust or genitals, with symmetrical flakes, single lesions or lesions, often in sites with skin trauma, or papules of 2-4 cm in size, grouped with The lesions;
Separate lesions with sharp edges or blankets with white streaks or scratches called Wickham streaks, glossy or squamous, red-purple (leather) or gray-white (mouth) dark color,
With the possibility of developing blisters or ulcers;
Metal flavor in the mouth.
DIAGNOSIS: Your doctor may make a diagnosis based on the appearance of skin lesions or mouth. A lesion biopsy can confirm the diagnosis. Blood tests can be done to exclude hepatitis.
THERAPY: The purpose of the treatment is to reduce the symptoms and accelerate the healing of skin lesions. If the symptoms are mild, you may not need treatment. Treatments may include:
Immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporine (in severe cases);
Lidocaine to wash your mouth to temporarily numb the area and allow it to eat (for mouth injuries);
Topical corticosteroids (such as clobetasol) or oral corticosteroids (eg prednisone), to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune response. Corticosteroids can be injected directly into a lesion;
Topical cream of retinoic acid (a form of vitamin A) and ointments or creams to reduce itching and inflammation and help healing;
Medications to protect the skin from scratches;
Ultraviolet light therapy may be useful in some cases.
PROBLEMS: The lichen planus is not generally harmful and can improve with the treatment. However it can last for weeks or months, and can go and go for years. It usually goes within 18 months. A possible complication may be the evolution of the lesion in oral cancer.
Contact a doctor if:
The symptoms continue;
Skin or mouth injuries change appearance;
Condition persists or worsens, even with treatment;
The dentist recommends adjusting medication or treatment that triggers the disease.
Lichen simplex chronic
The chronic simplex lichen is a skin disorder that leads to chronic itching and scratches.
Causes: This disorder can occur with:
Eczema (atopic dermatitis);
Nervousness, anxiety, depression and other psychological disorders.
It is common in children who chronically suffer from insect bites. It can also be common in children with mental retardation who have chronic repetitive movements.
SYMPTOMS: This skin disorder leads to a scratch-itching cycle:
You can start with something that rubs, irritates or scratches your skin, like clothing;
This causes the person to rub or scratch the affected area. The constant movement scratches the skin;
Thick skin thickens, causing more scratches, which in turn cause greater thickening;
Skin can become brown and brown in the affected area.
Itching of chronic or intense skin, which increases with nervous tension and stress;
Skin lesions commonly found on the ankle, wrist, neck, straight / anal area, forearms, thighs, leg, knee back, inner elbow;
Distinctive lesions that become crippled;
Reddened or dark (hyperpigmented) skin;
DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis is mainly based on the appearance of the skin and a history of chronic itching and scratching. A skin lesion biopsy may be needed to confirm the diagnosis. TERAPIA: The primary treatment is to stop scratching the skin. This may include consulting to become aware of the importance of not scratching, managing stress, or modifying behavior. Itching and inflammation can be treated with a steroid lotion or cream applied to the affected area of the skin. Ointments, such as those containing salicylic acid, can be used on thickened lesions. Soaps or lotions containing coal tar can be recommended.
Medications that cover and protect the area can be used with or without creams. They are left in place for a week or more. Antihistamines, sedatives or tranquilizers may be needed to reduce itching and stress. Steroids can be injected directly into the lesions to reduce itching and inflammation. Patients who have an emotional component that causes chronic lichen simplex may need antidepressants and tranquillizers.
PROGNOSIS: You can control the chronic lichen simplex, reducing stress and scratches. The condition can return or change sites. Possible complications may be:
Bacterial skin infection;
Permanent changes in skin color;
Permanent Cutting Machine.
Contact a physician if symptoms get worse or develop new, especially signs of skin infection such as pain, reddening or drainage from the lesion, or fever
Venereal Linfogranuloma is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection.
Causes: Venereal linfogranuloma (LGV) is caused by three different types of Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria. The bacteria spread through sexual contact. However, this infection is caused by a bacterium other than that causing chlamydia. There are a few thousands of LGV cases every year in Western countries and are more common in men than women. The main risk factor is having more than one sexual partner.
SYMPTOMS: LGV symptoms may start from a few days to a month after coming into contact with the bacteria. Symptoms include:
Small painless ulcer on male genitals or female genital tract;
Swelling and reddening of the skin in the inguinal area;
Swollen lymph nodes on one or both sides, but can also affect lymph nodes around the rectum in those who have anal sex;
Lymph node drainage in the groin;
Blood or pus from the rectum (blood in the stools);
Painful bowel movements.
Infection can cause diarrhea and lower abdominal pain. Women can develop fists near the vagina and the rectum.
DIAGNOSIS: Your doctor will perform a physical examination and ask questions about the medical history of the patient. It is important to tell your doctor if you have had any sexual contact with someone who has had Venereal Linfogranuloma. A physical examination may include:
Ulceration on the genital area;
Abnormalities in the rectal area;
Swollen lymph nodes in the groin (inguinal lymphadenopathy);
Lymph node drainage in the groin.
Tests may include:
Lymph node biopsy;
Blood testing to look for bacteria that cause the disease;
Laboratory test to detect chlamydia.
THERAPY: This condition can be cured with antibiotics. Commonly prescribed for LGV treatment include tetracycline, doxycycline and erythromycin.
PROGNOSIS: With treatment, the healing prospects are good. Possible complications may be:
Abnormal connection between the tissues between the rectum and the vagina;
Brain inflammation (very rare);
In the long term, inflammation and swelling of the genitals;
Cutters and rectum reduction.
Contact a doctor if you have been in contact with someone who may be suffering from a sexually transmitted disease.
PREVENTION: Abstinence from sexual activity is the only absolute way to avoid a sexually transmitted disease. Safe sex can reduce the risk. The correct use of condoms significantly reduces the risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease.
Sources: [Stamm WE, Jones RB, Batteiger BE. Trachomatis chlamydia (trachoma, perinatal infections, lymphogranuloma venereum, and other genital infections). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 6a ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 2005; Eckert LO, Lentz GM. Infections of the lower genital tract: vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, toxic shock syndrome, HIV infections. In: Katz VL, Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, eds. Global gynecology. 5a ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier, 2007; http://health.nytimes.com/health/; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Workowski KA, Berman SM. Illnesses characterized by genital ulcers. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines 2006.
Brain lymphoma, or primary lymphoma of the brain, is the cancer of the lymphatic cells that begins in the brain.
Causes: The cause of the primary brain lymphoma is unknown. It is most common in the ages of 45 and 70. Patients with a weakened immune system are at greater risk for cerebral lymphoma. The most common causes of a weakening of the immune system are HIV and organ transplants (particularly heart transplants). Lymphoma is also linked to the Epstein-Barr virus, the one that causes the mononucleosis. The incidence of lymphoma in the brain is increasing, but it is still relatively rare.
SYMPTOMS: The most common are:
Changes in speech;
Hot noodles, cold sores;
Weakness in the hands;
DIAGNOSIS: The following tests can be performed to diagnose a primary brain lymphoma:
Biopsy of the brain;
Computed Tomography or Magnetic Resonance of the Head.
THERAPY: The condition is usually cured with corticosteroids. However, chemotherapy can increase the survival of 3-4 years, or more. Chemotherapy is usually given with high doses of methotrexate administered intravenously or with lumbar puncture.
Treatment of patients with weakened immune system is unsuccessful, but it improves the symptoms. Radiotherapy was the primary treatment for the primary lymphoma of the brain. It is usually reserved for patients who do not respond to chemotherapy. Treatment with multiple therapies is common.
PROGNOSIS: The survival of untreated lymphomas is less than 2 months. If treated with chemotherapy, patients often survive 3-4 years or more. About 40% of patients are alive after 5 years. In general, older patients have a worse healing perspective than younger patients.
Possible complications include:
Side effects of chemotherapy, such as low blood count;
Side effects of radiation, such as confusion, headache, nervous system problems and tissue death;
Return of lymphoma.
Hodgkin's lymphoma is a malignant tumor (or cancer), lymphatic tissue found in lymph nodes, spleen, liver, bones and testes.
Causes: The first sign of this cancer is often a lymph node swelling that appears without a precise cause. The disease may spread to the lymph nodes and then spread to the lungs, liver or bone marrow. The cause is unknown. It is a common disease among people between the ages of 15 and 35 and between the ages of 50 and 70.
SYMPTOMS: The most common are:
Fever and chills;
Loss of appetite;
Painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits or groin (swelling of the glands);
Hippocamistry in the toes;
Pain at the side;
Blushy skin or hot flashes;
DIAGNOSIS: Disease can be diagnosed after:
A lymph node biopsy;
A bone marrow biopsy;
A suspicious tissue biopsy;
Identification of Reed-Sternberg (Hodgkin) cells;
X-ray of the chest, abdomen and pelvic area;
Chemical test of blood;
In some cases, abdominal surgery is needed to remove a piece of liver and remove the spleen.
However, if other tests are sufficient to detect the spread of Hodgkin, surgical intervention becomes useless. This disease may alter the results of the following tests:
Take-offs for small intestine biopsy;
Peritoneal liquid analysis;
Mediastinoscopy with biopsy;
Pleural fluid examination;
Bone marrow aspiration;
Therapy: Therapy depends mainly on the following variables:
The type of Hodgkin (most people have the classic type, without complications);
The stage where the disease is discovered;
If the tumor is more than 10 cm wide;
The age of the patient;
Other factors such as weight loss, night sweats and fever.
It is necessary to evaluate the identification of the phases in which the lymphoma is present to determine the therapy plan. These phases may be Phase I, indicating only one region involved in the lymph node (for example, the neck);
Phase II indicates the involvement of 2 lymph nodes on the same side of the diaphragm (for example, both sides of the neck);
Phase III indicates the involvement of lymph nodes on both sides of the body (for example, armpits and groin);
Phase IV involves the spread of cancer outside the lymph nodes (eg, bone marrow, lung or liver).
The treatment varies with the stage of the disease. Phases I and II (limited illness) can be treated with localized radiation therapy, with chemotherapy or with a combination of both. Phases III and IV (extensive or widespread disease) are treated with chemotherapy alone or with a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The best treatment for the individual patient depends on many factors, and should be discussed in detail with a doctor who has experience in treating this disease. Chemotherapy can cause less red blood cell production, which can lead to increased risk of bleeding, infections, and anemia. The infection should be taken seriously in the treatment of cancer, so contact your doctor immediately if fever or other signs of infection develop. Plan your daily activity with substantial rest periods to help prevent fatigue. Disease stress can often be alleviated by getting in touch with a support group of people sharing experiences and problems.
PROGNOSIS: With proper treatment, more than 80% of people with Phase I or II of Hodgkin survive for at least 10 years. With widespread disease, treatment is more intense and the survival rate of up to 5 years is about 60%. Possible complications are:
Negative effects of radiation and chemotherapy;
Inability to have children (sterility).
Sources: [H Eghbali, Meerwaldt JH, et al. Chemotherapy more involved in the early radiation of Hodgkin's lymphoma. N Engl J Med. November 8, 2007; Juweid ME, Stroobants S, Hoekstra OS, et al. Use of Positron Emission Tomography to Evaluate Lymphoma Response: Consent of Imaging Subcommittee of International Project Harmonization in Lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. February 10, 2007; 25 (5): 571-8. Epub 22 January 2007; National Cancer Institute. Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ). 2008; http://health.nytimes.com/health/]
Lumbago (witch shot)
The backbone, or stroke of the witch, is the term used to describe the general lumbar pain (lower back area). The exact cause of back pain is often unknown. Pain may occur suddenly after lifting heavy shoots, or gradually, through excessive use of the back as repetitive movements, or even for no apparent reason.
Causes: Back pain can be caused by factors that vary considerably, depending on how pain begins. Sudden onset (witch stroke):
Hernia of the lumbar disc;
Postural problems such as lordosis and scoliosis;
Pain in the sacral-iliac joints;
Myofascial pain in the buttocks or the paravertebral muscles;
General weakness in the back and muscles;
Spinal canal stenosis;
Driving or incorrect work posture.
SYMPTOMS: Low back pain that does not radiate to the legs (otherwise it may be sciatica or piriforme syndrome) is the typical symptom of low back pain. Pain may be constant and very strong (often associated with muscle spasms), or may be more sharp on certain movements or positions (this indicates a more severe lesion of a specific structure). Stiffness in the back is especially present in the morning.
DIAGNOSIS: The doctor, in most cases, diagnoses the disease by evaluating the symptoms. A chiropractor can better evaluate the condition with more in-depth physical examinations such as orthopedic and muscular tests. Rare X-rays or blood tests can be performed to exclude more serious causes.
THERAPY: Rest (in bed if it is really serious) is fundamental. The supine position is often the most comfortable (even with knees bent upwards). In cases of gradual onset, applying hot wraps such as a hot bath or a hot water bag can help. In cases of sudden onset of tissue damage, cold therapy may be better for the first 2-3 days.
Consult a specialist or your physician for a thorough diagnosis of the problem. After you determine the cause, you can advise on physical exercises and correct posture. Other rehabilitation methods can be:
Ultrasound or interfering treatment;
Complete rehabilitation with reinforcement program;
Prescription of anti-inflammatory, painkillers or muscle relaxants;
Apply traction or joint manipulation techniques.
PROGNOSIS: The more the person stays active and the more likely they are better. The condition can often come back. If this happens, you should consider a complete rehabilitation and a re-education program for your back muscles.
[Sources: sportsinjuryclinic; netdoctor]
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